Disorders Of Heart Rate Rhythm And Conduction Ppt To Pdf

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An arrhythmia also called dysrhythmia is an irregular or abnormal heartbeat.

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Arrhythmia , also known as cardiac arrhythmia or heart arrhythmia , is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow. There are four main groups of arrhythmia: extra beats , supraventricular tachycardias , ventricular arrhythmias and bradyarrhythmias. Most arrhythmias can be effectively treated. Arrhythmia affects millions of people. These are also known as AV blocks, because the vast majority of them arise from pathology at the atrioventricular node. They are the most common causes of bradycardia:.

Your heart rhythm is the way your heart beats. Conduction is how electrical impulses travel through your heart, which causes it to beat. Some conduction disorders can cause arrhythmias, or irregular heartbeats. Normally, electrical impulses travel down the right and left branches of the ventricles at the same speed. This allows both ventricles to contract simultaneously. This detour means that one ventricle contracts a fraction of a second slower than the other, causing an arrhythmia. A person with bundle branch block may experience no symptoms, especially in the absence of any other problems.

The normal heart beats in a regular, coordinated way because electrical impulses generated and spread by myocytes with unique electrical properties trigger a sequence of organized myocardial contractions. Arrhythmias and conduction disorders are caused by abnormalities in the generation or conduction of these electrical impulses or both. Any heart disorder, including congenital abnormalities of structure eg, accessory atrioventricular connection or function eg, hereditary ion channelopathies , can disturb rhythm. Systemic factors that can cause or contribute to a rhythm disturbance include electrolyte abnormalities particularly low potassium or magnesium , hypoxia, hormonal imbalances eg, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism , and drugs and toxins eg, alcohol, caffeine. At the junction of the superior vena cava and high lateral right atrium is a cluster of cells that generates the initial electrical impulse of each normal heart beat, called the sinoatrial SA or sinus node. Electrical discharge of these pacemaker cells stimulates adjacent cells, leading to stimulation of successive regions of the heart in an orderly sequence. Impulses are transmitted through the atria to the atrioventricular AV node via preferentially conducting internodal tracts and unspecialized atrial myocytes.


Dilated Cardiomyopathy pp Cite as. In patients with dilated cardiomyopathy DCM , it is possible to find a broad range of bradyrhythmias and tachyarrhythmias. Multiple mechanisms can explain atrial and ventricular tachyarrhythmias in DCM. Reentry is associated with slow conduction across surviving muscle bundles within regions of interstitial fibrosis, but other mechanisms can be involved, as nonuniform anisotropy of impulse propagation, ion channel dysfunction, and reduced gap junction function. Sudden death SD rate has been definitely reduced in the last three decades, but identification of patients at high risk is still a major issue. Despite its limitations, left ventricular LV dysfunction is still pivotal for the identification of patients who should be treated with ICD according to current guidelines, while the role of all other invasive and noninvasive parameters is still debated. Cardiac magnetic resonance and possibly genetic analysis, despite not widely available, can be helpful at least in selected cases.

Overview of Abnormal Heart Rhythms

Ventricular arrhythmias occur in the lower chambers of the heart, called the ventricles. Supraventricular arrhythmias occur in the area above the ventricles, usually in the upper chambers of the heart, called the atria. The irregular beats can either be too slow bradycardia or too fast tachycardia. Bradycardia is a very slow heart rate of less than 60 beats per minute.

Categories of Arrhythmias

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Conduction Disorders

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