File Name: lungs anatomy and physiology .zip
Place your hand over your chest, take a deep breath, and then let it out. Of course you already know that your lungs fill with air when you breathe, but did you know that your respiratory system does more than simply move oxygen into and out of your lungs?
- Anatomy and physiology of respiratory system relevant to anaesthesia
- 22.2 The Lungs
- Anatomy and Physiology of the Respiratory Tract
Anatomy and physiology of respiratory system relevant to anaesthesia
The lungs are the major organs of the respiratory system , and are divided into sections, or lobes. The right lung has three lobes and is slightly larger than the left lung, which has two lobes. The lungs are separated by the mediastinum. This area contains the heart , trachea , esophagus , and many lymph nodes. The lungs are covered by a protective membrane known as the pleura and are separated from the abdominal cavity by the muscular diaphragm.
22.2 The Lungs
Clinical application of anatomical and physiological knowledge of respiratory system improves patient's safety during anaesthesia. It also optimises patient's ventilatory condition and airway patency. Such knowledge has influence on airway management, lung isolation during anaesthesia, management of cases with respiratory disorders, respiratory endoluminal procedures and optimising ventilator strategies in the perioperative period. Understanding of ventilation, perfusion and their relation with each other is important for understanding respiratory physiology. Ventilation to perfusion ratio alters with anaesthesia, body position and with one-lung anaesthesia.
A major organ of the respiratory system, each lung houses structures of both the conducting and respiratory zones. The main function of the lungs is to perform the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide with air from the atmosphere. To this end, the lungs exchange respiratory gases across a very large epithelial surface area—about 70 square meters—that is highly permeable to gases. The lungs are pyramid-shaped, paired organs that are connected to the trachea by the right and left bronchi; on the inferior surface, the lungs are bordered by the diaphragm. The diaphragm is the flat, dome-shaped muscle located at the base of the lungs and thoracic cavity.
Most of the organs of the respiratory system help to distribute air, but only the tiny, grape-like alveoli and the alveolar ducts are responsible for actual gas exchange. In addition to air distribution and gas exchange, the respiratory system filters, warms, and humidifies the air you breathe. Organs in the respiratory system also play a role in speech and the sense of smell. Upper respiratory tract: Composed of the nose, the pharynx, and the larynx, the organs of the upper respiratory tract are located outside the chest cavity. Lower respiratory tract: Composed of the trachea, the lungs, and all segments of the bronchial tree including the alveoli , the organs of the lower respiratory tract are located inside the chest cavity. The inferior lobe is a section of the human lung. Each lung is divided into lobes; the right lung consists of the superior, middle, and inferior lobes,.
Anatomy and Physiology of the Respiratory Tract
Respiratory rate is a vital sign but is often not recorded. This article, the second in a five-part series , explains the anatomy and physiology of breathing and how it is affected by ill health. Measurement of respiratory rate is a vital sign. Nurses need to understand the anatomy and physiology of normal breathing to measure respiratory rate and interpret findings.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails. In mammals and most other vertebrates , two lungs are located near the backbone on either side of the heart.
The trillions of cells in the body require an abundant and continuous supply of oxygen to carry out their vital functions. The organs of the respiratory system include the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and their smaller branches, and the lungs, which contain the alveoli. The larynx or voice box routes air and food into the proper channels and plays a role in speech. The major function of the respiratory system is to supply the body with oxygen and to dispose of carbon dioxide. To do this, at least four distinct events, collectively called respiration, must occur. The most inferior cartilage in the larynx is the epiglottis. Unlike the other cartilages of the larynx, the epiglottis consists of hyaline cartilage.