File Name: concept of power and authority in political science .zip
- Concept of Power in Political Science
- Authority, Coercion, and Power in International Relations
- Power and Authority: Definition, Nature and Theory
- 14.1 Power and Authority
Don't have an account? Despite its central role in theories of international politics, scholars have an impoverished conception of power. Focusing almost exclusively on material capabilities and coercion, scholars ignore and even actively deny the role of political authority in relations between states.
Concept of Power in Political Science
Politics The distribution and exercise of power within a society. In any society, decisions must be made regarding the allocation of resources and other matters.
Except perhaps in the simplest societies, specific people and often specific organizations make these decisions. Depending on the society, they sometimes make these decisions solely to benefit themselves and other times make these decisions to benefit the society as a whole.
Regardless of who benefits, a central point is this: some individuals and groups have more power than others. Because power is so essential to an understanding of politics, we begin our discussion of politics with a discussion of power. Most of us have seen a striking example of raw power when we are driving a car and see a police car in our rearview mirror.
At that particular moment, the driver of that car has enormous power over us. We make sure we strictly obey the speed limit and all other driving rules. When the officer approaches our car, we ordinarily try to be as polite as possible and pray we do not get a ticket. When you were 16 and your parents told you to be home by midnight or else, your arrival home by this curfew again illustrated the use of power, in this case parental power. If a child in middle school gives her lunch to a bully who threatens her, that again is an example of the use of power, or, in this case, the misuse of power.
These are all vivid examples of power, but the power that social scientists study is both grander and, often, more invisible Wrong, Wrong, D. Power: Its forms, bases, and uses. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction. Much of it occurs behind the scenes, and scholars continue to debate who is wielding it and for whose benefit they wield it.
Economy and society: An outline of interpretive sociology G. Wittich, Eds. Berkeley: University of California Press. Original work published one of the founders of sociology discussed in earlier chapters, distinguished legitimate authority as a special type of power. Legitimate authority Power whose use is considered just and appropriate by those over whom the power is exercised. In short, if a society approves of the exercise of power in a particular way, then that power is also legitimate authority.
The example of the police car in our rearview mirrors is an example of legitimate authority. He called these three types traditional authority, rational-legal authority, and charismatic authority. We turn to these now. As the name implies, traditional authority Power that is rooted in traditional, or long-standing, beliefs and practices of a society.
Individuals enjoy traditional authority for at least one of two reasons. The first is inheritance, as certain individuals are granted traditional authority because they are the children or other relatives of people who already exercise traditional authority.
Traditional authority is common in many preindustrial societies, where tradition and custom are so important, but also in more modern monarchies discussed shortly , where a king, queen, or prince enjoys power because she or he comes from a royal family.
Traditional authority is granted to individuals regardless of their qualifications. They do not have to possess any special skills to receive and wield their authority, as their claim to it is based solely on their bloodline or supposed divine designation. An individual granted traditional authority can be intelligent or stupid, fair or arbitrary, and exciting or boring but receives the authority just the same because of custom and tradition.
As not all individuals granted traditional authority are particularly well qualified to use it, societies governed by traditional authority sometimes find that individuals bestowed it are not always up to the job. This form of authority is a hallmark of modern democracies, where power is given to people elected by voters, and the rules for wielding that power are usually set forth in a constitution, a charter, or another written document.
Whereas traditional authority resides in an individual because of inheritance or divine designation, rational-legal authority resides in the office that an individual fills, not in the individual per se. The authority of the president of the United States thus resides in the office of the presidency, not in the individual who happens to be president.
When that individual leaves office, authority transfers to the next president. This transfer is usually smooth and stable, and one of the marvels of democracy is that officeholders are replaced in elections without revolutions having to be necessary.
Rational-legal authority helps ensure an orderly transfer of power in a time of crisis. When John F. Kennedy was assassinated in , Vice President Lyndon Johnson was immediately sworn in as the next president. When Richard Nixon resigned his office in disgrace in because of his involvement in the Watergate scandal, Vice President Gerald Ford who himself had become vice president after Spiro Agnew resigned because of financial corruption became president.
Because the U. Constitution provided for the transfer of power when the presidency was vacant, and because U. Such charismatic individuals may exercise authority over a whole society or only a specific group within a larger society. Each of these individuals had extraordinary personal qualities that led their followers to admire them and to follow their orders or requests for action. Much of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Source: Photo courtesy of U. Charismatic authority can reside in a person who came to a position of leadership because of traditional or rational-legal authority.
Over the centuries, several kings and queens of England and other European nations were charismatic individuals as well while some were far from charismatic. A few U. Lanoue, D. From Camelot to the teflon president: Economics and presidential popularaity since Weber emphasized that charismatic authority in its pure form i. The reason for this is simple: once charismatic leaders die, their authority dies as well.
After the deaths of all the charismatic leaders named in the preceding paragraph, no one came close to replacing them in the hearts and minds of their followers. Because charismatic leaders recognize that their eventual death may well undermine the nation or cause they represent, they often designate a replacement leader, who they hope will also have charismatic qualities.
This new leader may be a grown child of the charismatic leader or someone else the leader knows and trusts. The danger, of course, is that any new leaders will lack sufficient charisma to have their authority accepted by the followers of the original charismatic leader.
For this reason, Weber recognized that charismatic authority ultimately becomes more stable when it is evolves into traditional or rational-legal authority.
Transformation into rational-legal authority occurs when a society ruled by a charismatic leader develops the rules and bureaucratic structures that we associate with a government. Weber used the term routinization of charisma The transformation of charismatic authority into either traditional authority or rational-legal authority.
Previous Section. Table of Contents. Next Section. Explain why charismatic authority may be unstable in the long run.
Traditional Authority As the name implies, traditional authority Power that is rooted in traditional, or long-standing, beliefs and practices of a society. According to Max Weber, the three types of legitimate authority are traditional, rational-legal, and charismatic. Charismatic authority is relatively unstable because the authority held by a charismatic leader may not easily extend to anyone else after the leader dies. For Your Review Think of someone, either a person you have known or a national or historical figure, whom you regard as a charismatic leader.
What is it about this person that makes her or him charismatic? Why is rational-legal authority generally more stable than charismatic authority?
Authority, Coercion, and Power in International Relations
In the fields of sociology and political science , authority is the legitimate power that a person or a group of persons consensually possess and practice over other people. In the exercise of governance , the terms authority and power are inaccurate synonyms. Ancient understandings of authority trace back to Rome and draw later from Catholic Thomistic thought and other traditional understandings. In more modern terms, forms of authority include transitional authority exhibited in for example Cambodia ,  public authority in the form of popular power , and, in more administrative terms, bureaucratic or managerial techniques. In terms of bureaucratic governance, one limitation of the governmental agents of the executive branch, as outlined by George A. Krause, is that they are not as close to the popular will as elected representatives are.
No votes yet. Skip to main content. Search form. Sign up Log in. Conservative viewpoint. Distinguished with authority by power being the ability to do and authority right to do.
Political sociology studies the relation between state and society, authority and power, and the methods used to formulate social policy. Diagram the three major traditional theoretical frameworks of political sociology, plus trends in contemporary sociology. Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. The term is generally applied to behavior within civil governments, but politics has been observed in all human group interactions, including corporate, academic, and religious institutions. It consists of social relations involving authority or power, the regulation of political units, and the methods and tactics used to formulate and apply social policy.
Department oj Political Science, Yale University. What is concept of power is as ancient and ubiquitous such as power and influence, particularly in po-.
Power and Authority: Definition, Nature and Theory
Courtesy U. Despite the differences between government systems in the Middle East and the United States, their governments play the same fundamental role: in some fashion, they exert control over the people they govern. The nature of that control—what we will define as power and authority—is an important feature of society. Sociologists have a distinctive approach to studying governmental power and authority that differs from the perspective of political scientists. For the most part, political scientists focus on studying how power is distributed in different types of political systems.
Politics refers to the distribution and exercise of power within a society, and polity refers to the political institution through which power is distributed and exercised. In any society, decisions must be made regarding the allocation of resources and other matters. Except perhaps in the simplest societies, specific people and often specific organizations make these decisions. Depending on the society, they sometimes make these decisions solely to benefit themselves and other times make these decisions to benefit the society as a whole.
Power and authority are perhaps the most vital aspects of all organisations in general and political organisations in particular. Power is related to taking of decisions and for the implementation of those decisions. No organisation, whatever may its nature be, can do its duty or achieve objectives without power.
14.1 Power and Authority
Что подумают люди. - В шифровалке проблемы. - Она безуспешно старалась говорить спокойно. Джабба нахмурился.
Голоса не стихали. Он прислушался. Голоса звучали возбужденно. - Мидж.
Сьюзан рассеянно кивнула, но тут же вспомнила, как Танкадо отдал им Северную Дакоту. Она вглядывалась в группы из четырех знаков, допуская, что Танкадо играет с ними в кошки-мышки. - Туннельный блок наполовину уничтожен! - крикнул техник. На ВР туча из черных нитей все глубже вгрызалась в оставшиеся щиты. Дэвид сидел в мини-автобусе, тихо наблюдая за драмой, разыгрывавшейся перед ним на мониторе. - Сьюзан! - позвал .
Power and authority are perhaps the most vital aspects of all organisations in Some political scientists want to mean that there is a special type of power which.