File Name: logic and distributed control systems .zip
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- ADVANCEMENT OF DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEM
- EI6702-Logic and Distributed Control System.pdf
- EI8651-Logic and Distributed Control System.pdf
- Industrial control system
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This paper presents an application of formal methods for validation of flexible manufacturing systems controlled by distributed controllers. A software tool verification environment for distributed applications VEDA is developed for modeling and verification of distributed control systems. The tool provides an integrated environment for formal, model-based verification of the execution control of function blocks following the new international standard IEC
ADVANCEMENT OF DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEM
Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Prem Baboo. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. While new plants are incorporating the DCS and small instrumentation. Old plants are also modernizing the instrumentation and control system.
Digital systems in general are very flexible and very versatile for integrating into the total management system of other function as well. This information has been collected from decades of implementation expertise of ABB engineers, end user controls engineers, consultants, and multiple Systems Integrators who actively implement both types of control solutions based on application requirement and user preferences.
Digital System Advantages; 1. They have less or fewer moving parts and hence chances of failure are very less. On the contrary, digital systems technology use a truly two wire transmission. The very powerful processing ability of the system has made computation such as mass flow computations, ratio control, biasing etc, easy and practical.
The system makes use of the standard pressures and temperature transmitters and performs the various calculations outlined above.
System changes are easy. Just do some reprogramming using hand held calibrators, or from the key board of a pc connected to the system. Redundancy at all levels, field device management. Distributed Control System Majority of control loops, especially of the past uses dedicated controller for each loop.
Modern trend favors use of micro-processor based distributed control system DCS as in the figure1. Wires from each transmitter of a cluster of transmitter terminate in a nearby Field Junction Box not shown in figure 1. Multi-core cables take off field JB and terminate in a set of terminals in a cubicle. The cubicle is located in a room adjoining the workstation room from plants with a few hundred loops. Field Bus Modules and Controller Cubicle This cubicle contains the field bus modules signal input microprocessors one redundant.
Cluster of wires two wires for each signal from marshalling arrange in logical order terminals convey the signals to field bus modules FBM located in another cubicle nearby digital devices known as field bus modules convert the analog inputs into digital inputs and convey to the microprocessor controller by a single pair of wire known as field bus.
The field bus can also accept and convey signals from programmable logic controllers PLC and others through appropriate signals conditioning cards. Intelligent Field Transmitte rs The advances in digital computer systems have led to the advent of intelligent field transmitters having the following advantages over conventional transmitters; 1.
Outputs are digital signals, for directly feeding to downstream digital systems. Analog to digital cards are not necessary. System has self-diagnostic features to indicate troubles of the transmitter. Thus maintenance is easy. One just feeds the data from hand held calibrators or from PC connected to the data bus by punching proper buttons.
The system calibrates itself. This is called programming or the instrument system. Microprocessor The microprocessor receives process data from several transmitters through FBM cards.
These cards convert the analog data from field transmitters into digital signals acceptable to the microprocessor. The microprocessor compares the process values with that of the set point and sends the correction output to field mounted final control elements through output cards.
These convert the digital output into analog output suitable for the field control valves. The very short processing time of the order of several nanoseconds One billionth of a second; one thousandth of a microsecond per data enables the microprocessor to handle several inputs, one at a time and control a process of over loops easily.
Control loops effect corrections based on the updated values of the process variables. P Close loop C. Redundant microprocessor Control systems usually have a redundant microprocessor, to take over automatically in case of failure, to ensure un- interrupted process control.
A control algorithm PID for each loop and various arithmetical functions like mass flow computation for pressure and temperature compensation of gas flow, ratio,3-element control etc, are programmable.
Re-configuration of the system for changed process needs is also easy, by just reprogramming. Workstation The operator interfaces with DCS by an operator console more technically called workstation. It consists of a set of pushbuttons, trackball and CRT cathode-ray tube. Some systems have a touch screen in lieu of the trackball. The operator can call the required information by touching the relevant images on the screen. The work station communicates with control cubicle and other workstations by means of a fiber optic bus running across the complex.
Workstation access Table 2 shows details of access to workstations. Access is usually by password. Environment Access level Authorization Can vie w displays, cannot Field operator environment. Control room operator As above, can change SP, 2 environment. As above, can change alarm sets, no tuning of Supervisory environment. As above, tune controlle rs, Maintenance engineer 4 access environme nt. Graphics has hierarchical levels as follows; Level 1 Plant wide; The following information is available.
Level 2 Complex level graphics; This graphics displays an overview of each of the major complex of the plant. Here again no process control is possible. However, this graphics displays that the unit has some faulty conditions.
This initiates further navigation to level 3 and level 4 to locate the problems. Unit level graphics should be in several pages to give details of the unit. Obviously this most often used graphics. Level 4 Detailed level graphics; This is detailed level graphics. This level is useful for detailed analysis and trouble shootings. Touch Screen; In computer science, a computer screen designed or modified to recognize the location of a touch on its surface.
By touching the screen, the user can make a selection or move a cursor. The simplest type of touch screen is made up of a grid of sensing lines, which determine the location of a touch by matching vertical and horizontal contacts. Another, more accurate, type uses an electrically charged surface and sensors around the outer edges of the screen to detect the amount of electrical disruption and pinpoint exactly where contact has been made.
A third type embeds infrared light-emitting diodes LED and sensors around the outer edges of the screen. These LED and sensors create an invisible infrared grid, which the user's finger interrupts, in front of the screen. The touch screen's popularity with personal-computer users has been limited because users must hold their hands in midair to point at the screen, which is prohibitively tiring over extended periods. Also, touch screens do not offer high resolution—the user is not able to touch only a specific point on the screen.
Touch screens are, however, immensely popular in applications such as information kiosks and automatic teller machines because they offer pointing control without requiring any movable hardware and because touching the screen is intuitive. Technological Advantages i. Reduces Cost ii. Engineering iv. Commissioning 2. Easy Adaptability i. Implementation ii. Operational iii. Maintenance 3.
Leveraging Technology i. Predictive Analysis ii. Control- in Field for faster loop execution iii. Advance diagnosis. Accuracy lost in current calibration differences. Reduced control room space. This ability to display increased amounts of data at the operator console improves operation efficiency. CENTUM CS R3 supports up to four monitors which can be stacked vertically or positioned side by side and a mouse can move over those four screens.
A large-size monitor can also be use as shown in the figure-2 Fig. Based on the ergonomic design concept, the HIS can be selectable from desk top, open display style console, and enclosed display style console types.
Multiple monitors can be set, and each one of the monitor displays multiple operation windows. Your savings would be significant and will continue to lower your costs over the life of your system. We look forward to helping you identify these savings and realize them in your next implementation. In the past, DCS Systems were large, expensive and very complex. Today, these implementations are consistently more expensive than DCS systems for the same process or batch application.
EI6702-Logic and Distributed Control System.pdf
Prepared by Dr. No Questions Competence Level 1. Define PLC. BTL 1 Remember 2. BTL 4 Analyze 3.
aspects of the Distributed Control System (DCS) for process control in an environment of intelligent field. devices and Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC).
EI8651-Logic and Distributed Control System.pdf
Distributed Control Distributed control can be defined as the conditional, adaptive delegation or assumption of control activities through This paper. Download Free PDF. Decentralized control has been developed during several decades but the results are of limited use in control engineering so far. The idea of control infrastructure is old. Distributed control system DCS is the most modern control platform.
Industrial control system ICS is a general term that encompasses several types of control systems and associated instrumentation used for industrial process control. Such systems can range in size from a few modular panel-mounted controllers to large interconnected and interactive distributed control systems with many thousands of field connections. Systems receive data from remote sensors measuring process variables PVs , compare the collected data with desired setpoints SPs , and derive command functions which are used to control a process through the final control elements FCEs , such as control valves. The simplest control systems are based around small discrete controllers with a single control loop each.
When creating distributed control systems, we can choose one of two possible approaches based on IEC and IEC standards. The first of them has been used for a long time in the PLC sphere, but it does not directly support the creation of extensive distributed systems. The second of the standards, IEC , offers a direct solution for distributed system creation. The truth is that it is a new standard, which is why it is supported by only a few device manufacturers.
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Industrial control system
Define PLC. BTL 1 2. Name the different modules involved in PLC architecture. BTL 1 4. List some of the input and output devices of PLC with their symbols.
Я видел схему. Она знала, что это. Как и то, что шахта лифта защищена усиленным бетоном. Сквозь клубящийся дым Сьюзан кое-как добралась до дверцы лифта, но тут же увидела, что индикатор вызова не горит. Она принялась нажимать кнопки безжизненной панели, затем, опустившись на колени, в отчаянии заколотила в дверь и тут же замерла. За дверью послышалось какое-то жужжание, словно кабина была на месте.
F.D. Petruzella, Programmable Logic Controllers, Tata Mc-Graw Hill, Third edition,. 2. Michael P. Lukas, Distributed Control Systems: Their Evaluation and.
Она старательно расшифровывала текст, завороженная тем, как на первый взгляд произвольный набор цифр превращался в красивые стихи. В тот момент она поняла, что нашла свою любовь - шифры и криптография отныне станут делом ее жизни. Почти через двадцать лет, получив степень магистра математики в Университете Джонса Хопкинса и окончив аспирантуру по теории чисел со стипендией Массачусетского технологического института, она представила докторскую диссертацию- Криптографические методы, протоколы и алгоритмы ручного шифрования. По-видимому, ее работу прочел не только научный руководитель, потому что вскоре последовал телефонный звонок, а затем по почте ей доставили авиационный билет от АНБ. Все, кто имел отношение к криптографии, знали, что о АНБ собраны лучшие криптографические умы нашей планеты. Каждую весну, когда частные фирмы начинают охоту за талантливой молодежью, соблазняя ее неприлично высокими окладами и фондовыми опционами в придачу, АНБ внимательно наблюдает за этим, выделяет наиболее подходящих и удваивает предлагаемую сумму. АНБ покупает все, что ему требуется.
Мозг Хейла лихорадочно работал. Звонок коммандера явился для него полным сюрпризом. Стратмор решился на. Он жертвует всеми планами, связанными с Цифровой крепостью. Хейл не мог поверить, что Стратмор согласился упустить такую возможность: ведь черный ход был величайшим шансом в его жизни. Хейлом овладела паника: повсюду, куда бы он ни посмотрел, ему мерещился ствол беретты Стратмора.
- Хейл хмыкнул. Он понимал: выбраться из шифровалки ему удастся, только если он пустит в ход все навыки поведения в конфликтных ситуациях, которые приобрел на военной службе. Стратмор придвинулся ближе, держа беретту в вытянутой руке прямо перед .