Cambridge International As And A Level Chemistry Coursebook Pdf

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Free Download Cambridge International AS and A Level Chemistry Coursebook 2e

We enable thousands of students to pass their Cambridge exams by providing comprehensive, high-quality, endorsed resources. To find out more about Cambridge International Examinations visit www. Endorsed by. The material required for AS Level is covered in the first 17 chapters, while the remaining 13 chapters cover the material required for the full A Level.

Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published 5th printing Printed in Dubai by Oriental Press A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library ISBN Paperback with CD-ROM for Windows and Mac Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.

Worksheets and copies of them remain in the copyright of Cambridge University Press and such copies may not be distributed or used in any way outside the purchasing institution.

Contents Introduction 1 Moles and equations 1. Simple electronic structure Evidence for electronic structure Sub-shells and atomic orbitals Electronic configurations Patterns in ionisation energies in the Periodic Table. Introduction: types of chemical bonding Ionic bonding Covalent bonding Shapes of molecules Metallic bonding Intermolecular forces Bonding and physical properties.

Introduction: energy changes What are enthalpy changes? Introduction Representing organic molecules Functional groups Naming organic compounds Bonding in organic molecules Structural isomerism Stereoisomerism Organic reactions — mechanisms Types of organic reactions.

Introduction — the alkanes Sources of the alkanes Reactions of alkanes The alkenes Addition reactions of the alkenes. Introduction — aldehydes and ketones Preparation of aldehydes and ketones Reduction of aldehydes and ketones Nucleophilic addition with HCN Testing for aldehydes and ketones.

Which order of reaction? Calculations involving the rate constant, k Deducing order of reaction from raw data Kinetics and reaction mechanisms Catalysis. What is a transition element? Physical properties of the transition elements Redox reactions Ligands and complex formation. The language has been kept simple, with bullet points where appropriate, in order to improve the accessibility to all students.

Principal Examiners have been involved in all aspects of this book to ensure that the content gives the best possible match to both the syllabus and to the type of questions asked in the examination. The book is arranged in two sections. Chapters 18—30 correspond to the A level section of the course for examinations in papers 4 and 5.

Within each of these sections the material is arranged in the same sequence as the syllabus. For example in the AS section, Chapter 1 deals with atoms, molecules and stoichiometry and Chapter 2 deals with atomic structure.

The A level section starts with lattice energy Chapter syllabus section 5 then progresses to redox potentials Chapter syllabus section 6. Nearly all the written material is new, although some of the diagrams have been based on material from the endorsed Chemistry for OCR books 1 and 2 Acaster and Ryan, There are separate chapters about nitrogen and sulfur Chapter 12 and the elements and compounds of Group IV Chapter 22 , which tie in with the specific syllabus sections.

Electrolysis appears in Chapter 7 and quantitative electrolysis in Chapter The chapter on reaction kinetics Chapter 21 includes material about catalysis whilst the organic chemistry section has been rewritten to accommodate the iodoform reaction and to follow the syllabus more closely.

The last three chapters have been developed to focus on the applications of chemistry Paper 4B. These chapters contain a wealth of material and questions which will help you gain confidence to maximise your potential in the examination. Important definitions are placed in boxes to highlight key concepts. Several features of the book are designed to make learning as effective and interesting as possible. These relate directly to the statements in the syllabus, so you know what you should be able to do when you have completed the chapter.

They often address misunderstandings that commonly appear in examination answers. The detailed answers can be found at the back of the book. These are to stimulate interest or to provide extension material.

They are not needed for the examination. Examples are also given of how to process the results of these experiments.

Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to: define the terms relative atomic, isotopic, molecular and 12 formula masses based on the C scale analyse mass spectra in terms of isotopic abundances no knowledge of the working of the mass spectrometer is required calculate the relative atomic mass of an element given the relative abundances of its isotopes or its mass spectrum define the term mole in terms of the Avogadro constant define the terms empirical and molecular formulae calculate empirical and molecular formulae using combustion data or composition by mass.

Over the past two centuries, chemists have learnt more and more about how. They have also found out the right conditions to allow these materials to react together to make new substances, such as dyes, plastics and medicines.

When we make a new substance it is important to mix the reactants in the correct proportions to ensure that none is wasted. In order to do this we need to know about the relative masses of atoms and molecules and how these are used in chemical calculations.

When we perform chemical calculations, we need to know how heavy one atom is compared with another. The mass of a single atom is so small that it is impossible to weigh it directly. To overcome this problem, we have to weigh a lot of atoms. Scientists have chosen to use the isotope carbon as the standard.

This has been given a mass of exactly 12 units. The mass of other atoms is found by comparing their mass with the mass of carbon atoms. This is called the relative atomic mass, Ar. Figure 1. The relative atomic mass is the weighted average mass of naturally occurring atoms of an element on a scale where an atom of carbon has a mass of exactly 12 units.

For compounds containing ions we use the term relative formula mass. This is calculated in the same way as for relative molecular mass. It is also given the same symbol, Mr. For example, for magnesium hydroxide:. We use the average mass of the atom of a particular element because most elements are mixtures of isotopes.

For example, the exact Ar of hydrogen is 1. This is very close to 1 and most Periodic Tables give the Ar of hydrogen as 1. However, some elements in the Periodic Table have values that are not whole numbers. For example, the Ar for chlorine is This is because chlorine has two isotopes.

In a sample of chlorine, chlorine makes up about three-quarters of the chlorine atoms and chlorine makes up about a quarter. Relative isotopic mass Isotopes are atoms which have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons see page We use the term relative isotopic mass for the mass of a particular isotope of an element on a scale where an atom of carbon has a mass of exactly 12 units. For example, the relative isotopic mass of carbon is If we know both the natural abundance of every isotope of an element and their isotopic masses, we can calculate the relative atomic mass of the element very accurately.

To find the necessary data we use an instrument called a mass spectrometer. Relative molecular mass, Mr The relative molecular mass of a compound Mr is the relative mass of one molecule of the compound on a scale where the carbon isotope has a mass of exactly 12 units.

We find the relative molecular mass by adding up the relative atomic masses of all the atoms present in the molecule. For example, for methane: formula atoms present add Ar values Mr of methane 2. It also compares how much of each isotope is present — the relative abundance. A simplified diagram of a mass spectrometer is shown in Figure 1. You will not be expected to know the details of how a mass spectrometer works, but it is useful to understand how the results are obtained.

The atoms of the element in the vaporised sample are converted into ions. The stream of ions is brought to a detector after being deflected bent by a strong magnetic field. As the magnetic field is increased, the ions of heavier and heavier isotopes are brought to the detector. Fact file Laser-microprobe mass spectrometry can be used to confirm that a pesticide has stuck to the surface of a crop plant after it has been sprayed.

Determination of Ar from mass spectra The detector is connected to a computer which displays the mass spectrum. Table 1. In the case of lead, Table 1. We can use the data obtained from a mass spectrometer to calculate the relative atomic mass of an element very accurately.

We can use this method to calculate the relative atomic mass of neon from its mass spectrum, shown in Figure 1. The mass spectrum of neon has three peaks: 20 Ne Note that this answer is given to 3 significant figures, which is consistent with the data given. The formula of a compound shows us the number of atoms of each element present in one formula unit or one molecule of the compound.

So the ratio of mass of hydrogen atoms to oxygen atoms in a water molecule is 2 : No matter how many molecules of water we have, this ratio will always be the same. But the mass of even atoms is far too small to be weighed. We have to scale up much more than this to get an amount of substance which is easy to weigh. The relative atomic mass or relative molecular mass of a substance in grams is called a mole of the substance. The abbreviation for a mole is mol.

We define the mole in terms of the standard carbon isotope see page 1. One mole of a substance is the amount of that substance which has the same number of specific particles atoms, molecules or ions as there are atoms in exactly 12 g of the carbon isotope.

A high-resolution mass spectrometer can give very accurate 16 relative isotopic masses. Because of this, chemists can distinguish between molecules such as SO2 and S2 which appear to have the same relative molecular mass. We often refer to the mass of a mole of substance as its molar mass abbreviation M.

The number of atoms in a mole of atoms is very large, 6.

Cambridge international AS and A level chemistry coursebook

Description or summary of the book: Skills-focused resources to support the study of Cambridge International AS and A Level Psychology for first examination in All books are in clear copy here, and all files are secure so don't worry about it. Through the embodied arts, we can literally "dance through Published on January 10, Read online Sociology - Cambridge University Press book pdf free download link book now.

Go to our other sites. Endorsed by Cambridge Resources align to the syllabus they support, and have been through a detailed quality assurance process. The coursebook provides a range of enquiry questions such as practical activities, group work and debate questions that develop 21st century skills. This resource is written to support English as a second language learners with key command terms, key words, accessible language throughout and glossary definitions in context throughout the text. The coursebook is part of a flexible suite of resources revised for examination from

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Free Download Cambridge International AS and A Level Chemistry Coursebook 2e

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We enable thousands of students to pass their Cambridge exams by providing comprehensive, high-quality, endorsed resources. To find out more about Cambridge International Examinations visit www. Endorsed by.

book Cambridge International AS and A Level Chemistry PDF

Cambridge International AS and A Level Chemistry (9701) Ebooks

This series flexibly meets the needs of students and teachers, with support for 21st century skills. For example in the AS section, Chapter 1 deals with atoms, molecules and stoichiometry and Chapter 2 deals with atomic structure. Teachers registered with Cambridge International can download past papers and early release materials where applicable from our password protected School Support Hub, where a much wider selection of syllabus materials is also available to download. Within each of these sections the material is arranged in the same sequence as the syllabus.

Moreover, we have taken convenience to another level now. Just login and you will be able to browse content faster and in a convenient way. You can now favourite, share, download ebooks, notes, papers, other resources and can do much more by simply registering. It is absolutely free. The syllabus includes the main theoretical concepts which are fundamental to the subject, some current applications of chemistry, and a strong emphasis on advanced practical skills. Practical skills are assessed in a timetabled practical examination. The emphasis throughout is on the understanding of concepts and the application of chemistry ideas in novel contexts as well as on the acquisition of knowledge.

 Мне нужен ключ, - повторила Сьюзан. - У меня его. Отпусти меня! - Он попробовал приподняться, но не смог даже повернуться. В перерывах между сигналами Сьюзан выкрикнула: - Ты - Северная Дакота, Энсей Танкадо передал тебе копию ключа. Он нужен мне немедленно.

You can also download it's accompanying CD-ROM from here. Cambridge International AS and A Level Chemistry Coursebook (2nd Edition) by Lawrie Ryan and.

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Сьюзан посмотрела на него и подумала о том, как жаль, что этот человек, талантливый и очень ценный для АНБ, не понимает важности дела, которым занимается агентство. - Грег, - сказала она, и голос ее зазвучал мягче, хотя далось ей это нелегко.  - Сегодня я не в духе. Меня огорчают твои разговоры о нашем агентстве как каком-то соглядатае, оснащенном современной техникой. Эта организация создавалась с единственной целью - обеспечивать безопасность страны.

На террасе тоже было полно панков, но Беккеру она показалась чем-то вроде Шангри-Ла: ночное летнее небо над головой, тихие волны долетающей из зала музыки. Не обращая внимания на устремленные на него любопытные взгляды десятков пар глаз, Беккер шагнул в толпу. Он ослабил узел галстука и рухнул на стул у ближайшего свободного столика. Казалось, что с той минуты, когда рано утром ему позвонил Стратмор, прошла целая вечность. Сдвинув в сторону пустые пивные бутылки, Беккер устало опустил голову на руки.

Сейчас она держалась подчеркнуто сдержанно, и это пугало его еще сильнее. - Так в чем же проблема, Фил? - спросил Стратмор, открывая холодильник.  - Может, чего-нибудь выпьешь. - Нет, а-а… нет, спасибо, сэр.  - Ему трудно было говорить - наверное потому, что он не был уверен, что его появлению рады.  - Сэр, мне кажется… что с ТРАНСТЕКСТОМ какая-то проблема. Стратмор закрыл дверцу холодильника и без тени волнения взглянул на Чатрукьяна.

Затем раздался крик: - Нужно немедленно вызвать Джаббу. Послышались другие звуки, похожие на шум борьбы. ГЛАВА 55 - Ты уселся на мое место, осел. Беккер с трудом приподнял голову. Неужели в этой Богом проклятой стране кто-то говорит по-английски.

Любовь. Дэвид Беккер должен был погибнуть за первое, второе и третье. ГЛАВА 103 Стратмор возник из аварийного люка подобно Лазарю, воскресшему из мертвых.

Еще в автобусе Беккер смирился с мыслью, что его миссия провалилась. Пора звонить Стратмору и выкладывать плохую новость: поиски зашли в тупик. Он сделал все, что мог, теперь пора ехать домой. Но сейчас, глядя на толпу завсегдатаев, пытающихся попасть в клуб, Беккер не был уверен, что сможет отказаться от дальнейших поисков.

4 Response
  1. Clicelneoche

    An accessible and clear approach with separate sections for AS and A Level, and content structured to the syllabus.

  2. Matthew M.

    Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication.

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