Crime And Types Of Crime Pdf

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Crime can involve violence, sex or drugs but also discrimination, road rage, undeclared work and burglary. Crime is any behaviour and any act, activity or event that is punishable by law. Anyone using the internet can be a victim of cyber crime.

What Are the Different Types of Crimes?

Many types of crime exist. Criminologists commonly group crimes into several major categories: 1 violent crime; 2 property crime; 3 white-collar crime; 4 organized crime; and 5 consensual or victimless crime. Within each category, many more specific crimes exist. For example, violent crime includes homicide, aggravated and simple assault, rape and sexual assault, and robbery, while property crime includes burglary, larceny, motor vehicle theft, and arson.

Because a full discussion of the many types of crime would take several chapters or even an entire book or more, we highlight here the most important dimensions of the major categories of crime and the issues they raise for public safety and crime control. Even if, as our earlier discussion indicated, the news media exaggerate the problem of violent crime, it remains true that violent crime plagues many communities around the country and is the type of crime that most concerns Americans.

The news story that began this chapter reminds us that violent crime is all too real for too many people; it traps some people inside their homes and makes others afraid to let their children play outside or even to walk to school.

Rape and sexual assault are a common concern for many women and leads them to be more fearful of being victimized than men: In the Gallup poll mentioned earlier, 37 percent of women said they worried about being sexually assaulted, compared to only 6 percent of men see Figure 8. Figure 8. Source: Data from Maguire, K. Sourcebook of criminal justice statistics. Research on violent crime tends to focus on homicide and on rape and sexual assault. Homicide, of course, is considered the most serious crime because it involves the taking of a human life.

As well, homicide data are considered more accurate than those for other crimes because most homicides come to the attention of the police and are more likely than other crimes to lead to an arrest. Certain aspects of homicide are worth noting. Two people may begin arguing for any number of reasons, and things escalate.

A fight may then ensue that results in a fatal injury, but one of the antagonists may also pick up a weapon and use it. About 25—50 percent of all homicides are victim-precipitated, meaning that the eventual victim is the one who starts the argument or the first one to escalate it once it has begun.

Second, and related to the first aspect, most homicide offenders and victims knew each other before the homicide occurred. Indeed, about three-fourths of all homicides involve nonstrangers, and only one-fourth involve strangers. Thus although fear of a deadly attack by a stranger dominates the American consciousness, we in fact are much more likely on average to be killed by someone we know than by someone we do not know.

Third, about two-thirds of homicides involve firearms. To be a bit more precise, just over half involve a handgun, and the remaining firearm-related homicides involve a shotgun, rifle, or another undetermined firearm. Combining these first three aspects, then, the most typical homicide involves nonstrangers who have an argument that escalates and then results in the use of deadly force when one of the antagonists uses a handgun.

Fourth, most homicides as most violent crime in general are intraracial , meaning that they occur within the same race; the offender and victim are of the same race. Although whites fear victimization by African Americans more than by whites, whites in fact are much more likely to be killed by other whites than by African Americans.

While African Americans do commit about half of all homicides, most of their victims are also African American. Fifth, males commit about 90 percent of all homicides and females commit only 10 percent. As we discuss in Section 3. Sixth, the homicide rate is much higher in large cities than in small towns. In , the homicide rate number of homicides per , population in cities with a population at or over , was Thus the risk for homicide is four times greater in large cities than in small towns.

While most people in large cities certainly do not die from homicide, where we live still makes a difference in our chances of being victimized by homicide and other crime.

Source: Data from Federal Bureau of Investigation. Crime in the United States, Washington, DC: Author. Finally, the homicide rate rose in the late s and peaked during the early s before declining sharply until the early s and then leveling off and declining a bit further since then. Some observers believe rising imprisonment rates also made a difference, and we return to this issue later in this chapter. Like homicide, about three-fourths of all rapes and sexual assaults involve individuals who know each other, not strangers.

As noted earlier, the major property crimes are burglary, larceny, motor vehicle theft, and arson. These crimes are quite common in the United States and other nations and, as Table 8. Many Americans have installed burglar alarms and other security measures in their homes and similar devices in their cars and SUVs.

While property crime by definition does not involve physical harm, it still makes us concerned, in part because it touches so many of us. Although property crime has in fact declined along with violent crime since the early s, it still is considered a major component of the crime problem, because it is so common and produces losses of billions of dollars annually.

Much property crime can be understood in terms of the roles and social networks of property criminals. In this regard, many scholars distinguish between amateur theft and professional theft. Most property offenders are amateur offenders: They are young and unskilled in the ways of crime, and the amount they gain from any single theft is relatively small. They also do not plan their crimes and instead commit them when they see an opportunity for quick illegal gain.

In contrast, professional property offenders tend to be older and quite skilled in the ways of crime, and the amount they gain from any single theft is relatively large. Not surprisingly, they often plan their crimes well in advance. The so-called cat burglar , someone who scales tall buildings to steal jewels, expensive artwork, or large sums of money, is perhaps the prototypical example of the professional property criminals.

Many professional thieves learn how to do their crimes from other professional thieves, and in this sense they are mentored by the latter just as students are mentored by professors, and young workers by older workers. If you were asked to picture a criminal in your mind, what image would you be likely to think of first: a scruffy young male with a scowl or sneer on his face, or a handsome, middle-aged man dressed in a three-piece business suit?

No doubt the former image would come to mind first, if only because violent crime and property crime dominate newspaper headlines and television newscasts and because many of us have been victims of violent or property crime. Yet white-collar crime is arguably much more harmful than street crime, both in terms of economic loss and of physical injury, illness, and even death.

What exactly is white-collar crime? The most famous definition comes from Edwin Sutherland , p. Several had engaged in crimes during either World War I or II; they provided defective weapons and spoiled food to US troops and even sold weapons to Germany and other nations the United States was fighting.

For example, some physicians bill Medicare and private insurance for services that patients do not really need and may never receive.

Medical supply companies sometimes furnish substandard equipment. To compensate for the economic loss it incurs, health-care fraud drives up medical expenses and insurance costs.

In this sense, it steals from the public even though no one ever breaks into your house or robs you at gunpoint. Although health-care and other professional fraud are serious, corporate crime dwarfs all other forms of white-collar crime in the economic loss it incurs and in the death, injury, and illness it causes.

Corporate financial crime involves such activities as fraud, price fixing, and false advertising. The Enron scandal in involved an energy corporation whose chief executives exaggerated profits. Its thousands of workers lost their jobs and pensions, and investors in its stock lost billions of dollars.

Several other major corporations engaged in or strongly suspected of doing so accounting fraud during the late s and early s, but Enron was merely the most notorious example of widespread scandal that marked this period.

While corporate financial crime and corruption have cost the nation untold billions of dollars in this and earlier decades, corporate violence —actions by corporations that kill or maim people or leave them ill—is even more scandalous. The victims of corporate violence include corporate employees, consumers of corporate goods, and the public as a whole. Annual deaths from corporate violence exceed the number of deaths from homicide, and illness and injury from corporate violence affect an untold number of people every year.

The asbestos industry learned in the s that asbestos was a major health hazard, but it kept this discovery a secret for more than three decades.

Employees of corporations suffer from unsafe workplaces in which workers are exposed to hazardous conditions and chemicals because their companies fail to take adequate measures to reduce or eliminate this exposure. Such exposure may result in illness, and exposure over many years can result in death. According to a recent estimate, more than 50, people die each year from workplace exposure American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations [AFL-CIO], , a figure about three times greater than the number of annual homicides.

About 1, coal miners die each year from black lung disease, which results from the breathing of coal dust; many and perhaps most of these deaths would be preventable if coal mining companies took adequate safety measures G.

Harris, In another example, the asbestos industry learned during the s that exposure to asbestos could cause fatal lung disease and cancer. Despite this knowledge, asbestos companies hid evidence of this hazard for more than three decades: They allowed their workers to continue to work with asbestos and marketed asbestos as a fire retardant that was widely installed in schools and other buildings.

More than , asbestos workers and members of the public either have already died or are expected to die from asbestos exposure; most or all of these deaths could have been prevented if the asbestos industry had acted responsibly when it first discovered it was manufacturing a dangerous product Lilienfeld, Unsafe products also kill or maim consumers.

It then did a cost-benefit analysis to determine whether it would cost more to fix the problem or instead to settle lawsuits after Pinto drivers and passengers died or were burned and injured in rear-end collisions. Because Ford made this decision, about five hundred people eventually died in Pinto rear-end collisions and many others were burned.

The toll of white-collar crime, both financial and violent, is difficult to estimate, but by all accounts it exceeds the economic loss and death and injury from all street crime combined. By any measure, the toll of white-collar crime dwarfs the toll of street crime, even though the latter worries us much more than white-collar crime.

Despite the harm that white-collar crime causes, the typical corporate criminal receives much more lenient punishment, if any, than the typical street criminal Rosoff et al.

Organized crime refers to criminal activity by groups or organizations whose major purpose for existing is to commit such crime.

The emphasis on Italian domination of organized crime overlooks these other involvements and diverts attention from the actual roots of organized crime. What are these roots? Organized crime flourished during the s because it was all too ready and willing to provide an illegal product, alcohol, that the pubic continued to demand even after Prohibition began. Today, organized crime earns its considerable money from products and services such as illegal drugs, prostitution, pornography, loan sharking, and gambling.

It also began long ago to branch out into legal activities such as trash hauling and the vending industry. Government efforts against organized crime since the s have focused on arrest, prosecution, and other law-enforcement strategies. Organized crime has certainly continued despite these efforts. This fact leads some scholars to emphasize the need to reduce public demand for the goods and services that organized crime provides.

However, other scholars say that reducing this demand is probably a futile or mostly futile task, and they instead urge consideration of legalizing at least some of the illegal products and services e. Doing so, they argue, would weaken the influence of organized crime. Consensual crime also called victimless crime refers to behaviors in which people engage voluntarily and willingly even though these behaviors violate the law.

People who use illegal drugs, who hire themselves out as prostitutes or employ the services of a prostitute, who gamble illegally, and who use pornography are all doing so because they want to. These behaviors are not entirely victimless, as illegal drug users, for example, may harm themselves and others, and that is why the term consensual crime is often preferred over victimless crime.

Types of Criminal Offenses

Personality is a major factor in many kinds of behavior, one of which is criminal behavior. This study tries to identify different personality traits which link criminals to their personality. In the present study, 37 male criminals of district jail of Dhanbad Jharkhand and 36 normal controls were included on a purposive sampling basis. Each criminal was given a personal datasheet and Cattel's 16 personality factors PFs scale for assessing their sociodemographic variables and different personality traits. The objective of this study was to examine the relation between personality traits and criminal behavior, and to determine whether such factors are predictive of future recidivism. Results indicated high scores on intelligence, impulsiveness, suspicion, self-sufficient, spontaneity, self-concept control factors, and very low scores on emotionally less stable on Cattel's 16 PFs scale in criminals as compared with normal. Criminals differ from general population or non criminals in terms of personality traits.

Defining Crime pp Cite as. M ost criminologists would probably argue that the definition of crime is defined by the state and is not something that they can do much, if anything, to change or influence. Crime is, in this view, what the law states. Using this legal definition, criminologists simply study the causes of crime to determine why some individuals violate the law— perhaps suggesting how various state agencies may do a better job reducing crime and apprehending offenders. We assert that this is a rather unscientific position on the study of crime that lacks both scientific rigor and academic purpose.

A crime is defined as any act that is contrary to legal code or laws. There are many different types of crimes, from crimes against persons to victimless crimes and violent crimes to white collar crimes. The study of crime and deviance is a large subfield within sociology, with much attention paid to who commits which types of crimes and why. Crimes against persons also called personal crimes, include murder, aggravated assault, rape, and robbery. Property crimes involve the theft of property without bodily harm, such as burglary, larceny, auto theft, and arson. Like personal crimes, young, urban, poor, and racial minorities are arrested for these crimes more than others.

Forms of crime

In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. Such acts are forbidden and punishable by law. The notion that acts such as murder , rape , and theft are to be prohibited exists worldwide.

Criminal law, as distinguished from civil law , is a system of laws concerned with punishment of individuals who commit crimes. Thus, where in a civil case two individuals dispute their rights, a criminal prosecution involves the government deciding whether to punish an individual for either an act or an omission. Each state decides what conduct to designate a crime.

7 Different Types of Crimes

Many types of crime exist. Criminologists commonly group crimes into several major categories: 1 violent crime; 2 property crime; 3 white-collar crime; 4 organized crime; and 5 consensual or victimless crime. Within each category, many more specific crimes exist. For example, violent crime includes homicide, aggravated and simple assault, rape and sexual assault, and robbery, while property crime includes burglary, larceny, motor vehicle theft, and arson. Because a full discussion of the many types of crime would take several chapters or even an entire book or more, we highlight here the most important dimensions of the major categories of crime and the issues they raise for public safety and crime control. Even if, as our earlier discussion indicated, the news media exaggerate the problem of violent crime, it remains true that violent crime plagues many communities around the country and is the type of crime that most concerns Americans.

Although there are many different kinds of crimes, criminal acts can generally be divided into four primary categories: personal crimes, property crimes, inchoate crimes, statutory crimes, and financial crimes. Personal crimes are those that result in physical or mental harm to another person. They can be divided into two main categories, forms of homicide and other violent crimes. Where the physical harm to another individual is so severe that it causes death, a defendant may be charged with any one of several types of homicide, including, for example, first-degree murder , voluntary manslaughter , or vehicular homicide. Conversely violent crimes, which are also very severe, include:. Property crimes typically involve interference with the property of another. Although they may involve physical or mental harm to another, they primarily result in the deprivation of the use or enjoyment of property.

This introduction to the book starts by defining crime. It explains that cross-national agreement about what should and should not be considered as criminal is narrower than is sometimes recognized. Examples are given of various acts that are regarded as criminal in some countries but not others. Crime and its control raises many instrumental, expressive, emotional, and moral issues, the text states. The layout of the book is outlined and some noncontroversial conclusions are offered.


Our index gives similar results for different data samples and suggests that the amount of social interactions are highest in petty crimes (such as larceny and auto.


5 Response
  1. Sima O.

    Murder. Murder is the willful killing of one human being by another. Aggravated Assault. Aggravated Assault is the unlawful attack by one person upon another for the purpose of inflicting severe or aggravated bodily injury. Forcible Sex Offenses. Non-Forcible Sex Offenses. Kidnapping/Abduction. Arson. Bribery. Burglary.

  2. Sergio P.

    Many types of crime exist. Criminologists commonly group crimes into several major categories: (1) violent crime; (2) property crime; (3) white-collar crime;.

  3. Sienna S.

    This article concentrates on the concept of crime, its elements, criminology, various stages in commission of crime, causes of crime and types of.

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