File Name: social change and crime rate trends a routine activity approach .zip
Routine activity theory is a sub-field of crime opportunity theory that focuses on situations of crimes. It was first proposed by Marcus Felson and Lawrence E. Cohen in their explanation of crime rate changes in the United States between and Unlike criminological theories of criminality, routine activity theory studies crime as an event, closely relates crime to its environment and emphasizes its ecological process,  thereby diverting academic attention away from mere offenders. Despite this, crime rose significantly during this time.
Routine Activity Theory in Crime Investigation
Routine activity theory, like the related lifestyle-exposure theory, emerged as a key theoretical approach in criminology in the late s. Routine activities refer to generalized patterns of social activities in a society i. Routine activity theory links a macro-level structural model spatial and temporal patterns of routine activities in society with a micro-level situational model that aims to explain why a crime occurs. The situational model stipulates that a criminal act occurs as a result of the convergence of a motivated offender, a suitable target, and a lack of guardianship control, supervision. Routine activity theory is sometimes combined with rational choice theory, an action theory that explains human action as the result of rational choice i. Some efforts have been made to integrate the routine activity approach with other criminological theories.
In this paper we present a "routine activity approach " for analyzing crime rate trends and cycles. Rather than emphasizing the characteristics of offenders, with this approach we concentrate upon the circumstances in which they carry out predatory criminal acts. Most criminal acts require convergence in space and time of likely offenders, suitable targets and the absence of capable guardians against crime. Human ecological theory facilitates an investigation into the way in which social structure produces this convergence, hence allowing illegal activities to feed upon the legal activities of everyday life. In particular, we hypothesize that the dispersion of activities away from households and families increases the opportunity for crime and thus generates higher crime rates. A variety of data is presented in support of the hypothesis, which helps explain crime rate trends in the United States as a byproduct of changes in such variables as labor force participation and single-adult households.
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Routine Activity Theory
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This paper examines three scenarios of insider fraud based on empirical data from an upper-tier budget hotel in London, as part of a thought experiment on insider fraud. The scenarios are presented in the form of crime scripts and are reviewed under the theoretical framework of the Routine Activity Approach, which is widely used in crime science. The discussion that follows reflects on the theoretical underpinnings of the Routine Activity Approach and raises wider issues and concerns relating to information security, such as the adoption and implementation of controls against the insider threat.
Scientific Research An Academic Publisher. Except for sexual assaults, it is a truism that men suffer more violent victimizations than women.