Human Anatomy And Physiology Of Endocrine System Pdf

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It provides a slower, but longer lasting coordination than the nervous system. The endocrine system uses chemical messages in the form of hormones- chemical substances that are secreted by cells into extracellular fluids and regulate metabolic activity.

Communication is a process in which a sender transmits signals to one or more receivers to control and coordinate actions.

Human endocrine system

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MBBS F. Endocrine Glands 1 Hypothalamus 2 Pineal body. Clinical features skip 1 Lesions of the hypothalamus may result in a variety of autonomic disturbances, e. The thalamus and 3rd ventricle in coronal section.

It may then give the important radiological sign of lateral displacement by a space-occupying lesion of the cerebral hemisphere. The latter is a radiological finding you can skip it. The pineal gland contains neurons, glial cells, and special secretory cells called pinealocytes. This cycle is apparently important in regulating circadian rhythms, our natural awake-asleep cycles.

The Pituitary Gland The wings can be seen most clearly on the superior surface. This recess is called the hypophysial fossa, and the bony enclosure is called the sella turcica. The tuberculum sellae forms the anterior border of the sella turcica; the dorsum sellae forms the posterior border.

This fold has a central aperture through which passes the infundibulum. Below is the body of the sphenoid, laterally lies the cavernous sinus and its contents separated by dura mater, with intercavernous sinuses communicating in front, behind and below.

The optic chiasma lies above, immediately in front of the infundibulum. Hypophyseal Portal Vessels As it enlarges it expands the pituitary fossa sella turcica and this may be demonstrated radiologically.

If it occurs before puberty, which is unusual, it produces gigantism; after puberty it results in acromegaly. This is now the preferred approach to surgery of pituitary tumours. The descent of the thyroid, showing possible sites of ectopic thyroid tissue or thyroglossal cysts,and also the course of a thyroglossal fistula.

The arrow shows the further descent of the thyroid which may take place retrosternally into the superior mediastinum. The isthmus—overlying the 2nd and 3rd rings of the trachea; 2. The lateral lobes— each extending from the side of the thyroid cartilage downwards to the 6th tracheal ring; 3. An inconstant pyramidal lobe projecting upwards from the isthmus, usually on the left side, which represents a remnant of the embryological descent of the thyroid.

When the thyroid enlarges, the strap muscles stretch and adhere to the gland. The Parathyroid Glands The normal sites of the parathyroid glands posterior aspect. The relationship of the recurrent laryngeal nerve to the thyroid gland and the inferior thyroid artery.

Normal and abnormal sites of the parathyroid glands lateral view. The derivatives of the branchial pouches. The inferior parathyroid migrates downwards from the 3rd pouch whereas the superior parathyroid 4th pouch remains stationary. Clinical Features skip 1. These possible aberrant sites are, of course, of great importance in searching for a parathyroid adenoma in hyperparathyroidism.

The parathyroids are usually safe in subtotal thyroidectomy because the posterior rim of the thyroid is preserved. However, they may be inadvertently removed or damaged, with resultant tetany due to the lowered serum calcium.

Alpha cells Glucagon. Beta cells Insulin. Delta cells somatostain. GHIH 4. F cells PP pancreatic polypeptide Testis and epididymis Transverse section of the testis About the time of birth this processus obliterates, leaving the testis covered by the tunica vaginalis.

Abnormalities of the obliteration of the processus vaginalis lead to a number of extremely common surgical conditions of which the indirect inguinal hernia is the most important. Types of hydrocele. The tube at the upper end of each diagram represents the internal inguinal ring.

In the same way as the testis, it therefore drags its blood supply and lymphatic drainage downwards with it from the posterior abdominal wall. Thank You. You just clipped your first slide! Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Visibility Others can see my Clipboard.

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17.1 An Overview of the Endocrine System

The pituitary gland is a part of your endocrine system. Its main function is to secrete hormones into your bloodstream. These hormones can affect other organs and glands, especially your:. The pituitary gland is small and oval-shaped. The hypothalamus is a small area of your brain.

Human endocrine system , group of ductless glands that regulate body processes by secreting chemical substances called hormones. Hormones act on nearby tissues or are carried in the bloodstream to act on specific target organs and distant tissues. Diseases of the endocrine system can result from the oversecretion or undersecretion of hormones or from the inability of target organs or tissues to respond to hormones effectively. It is important to distinguish between an endocrine gland, which discharges hormones into the bloodstream, and an exocrine gland , which secretes substances through a duct opening in a gland onto an external or internal body surface. Salivary glands and sweat glands are examples of exocrine glands. Both saliva, secreted by the salivary glands, and sweat, secreted by the sweat glands, act on local tissues near the duct openings. In contrast, the hormones secreted by endocrine glands are carried by the circulation to exert their actions on tissues remote from the site of their secretion.

If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. Please consult the latest official manual style if you have any questions regarding the format accuracy. A hormone is a chemical that is produced by the body and has a specific regulatory effect on a target cell or organ. Classic endocrinology was concerned with the functions of anatomically defined glands such as the thyroid gland or the pituitary gland. It is now recognized that almost every organ secretes hormones and that endocrine cells may be dispersed throughout the body e.


1. Describe the role and function of the anterior and posterior pituitary, hypothalamus, adrenal glands, endocrine pancreas, and thyroid gland within the endocrine.


An Overview of the Endocrine System

If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. Please consult the latest official manual style if you have any questions regarding the format accuracy. A hormone is a chemical that is produced by the body and has a specific regulatory effect on a target cell or organ. Classic endocrinology was concerned with the functions of anatomically defined glands such as the thyroid gland or the pituitary gland. It is now recognized that almost every organ secretes hormones and that endocrine cells may be dispersed throughout the body e.

Our body cells have dynamic adventures on microscopic levels all the time. For instance, when insulin molecules, carried passively along in the blood leave the blood and bind tightly to protein receptors of nearby cells, the response it dramatic: blood borne glucose molecules begin to disappear into the cells, and cellular activity accelerates. Despite the huge variety of hormones, there are really only two mechanisms by which hormones trigger changes in cells. Compared to other organs of the body, the organs of the endocrine system are small and unimpressive, however, functionally the endocrine organs are very impressive, and when their role in maintaining body homeostasis is considered, they are true giants.

Human Physiology pp Cite as. The biological role of the endocrine system is closely linked to that of the nervous system; the two together coordinate the functions of the other in some cases widely separated organs and organ systems. The distinguishing feature of the endocrine system is that its influence is exerted by way of a number of substances, the hormones. Chemically, the hormones are a nonuniform group; the range of compounds represented includes steroids, amino-acid derivatives, peptides and proteins. They have specific actions on these target organs, actions that as a rule cannot be produced by any other substance.

Functions of the Endocrine System