File Name: types of drug interactions and examples .zip
We live in a world where incredible drugs exist to treat many conditions that seemed untouchable in the past.
Concepts in Biochemical Pharmacology pp Cite as. Drugs may frequently interact adversely to cause drug toxicity or render a needed therapy ineffective. The situation is compounded by the current pattern of drug usage in which approximately ten different drugs are received by the average patient in the hospital. The number of drugs employed in combination in the out-patient setting is also increasing as more chronic diseases are treated for longer periods of time. This suggests a need not only for an improved awareness of drug interactions by physicians but also for careful investigative documentation of drug interactions and their clinical relevance in man in order to provide a rational education in this important aspect of therapeutics. Unable to display preview.
Oxford University Press makes no representation, express or implied, that the drug dosages in this book are correct. Readers must therefore always check the product information and clinical procedures with the most up to date published product information and data sheets provided by the manufacturers and the most recent codes of conduct and safety regulations. The authors and the publishers do not accept responsibility or legal liability for any errors in the text or for the misuse or misapplication of material in this work. Except where otherwise stated, drug dosages and recommendations are for the non-pregnant adult who is not breastfeeding. Introduction [link].
It is important to know the possible drug interactions as these can cause serious adverse reactions or result in failed therapy. Drug-drug interactions result when two or more drugs react with each other. Drugs with a narrow therapeutic range little difference between therapeutic and lethal dose are more likely to face incidents of serious drug interactions. For example: Taking digoxin with antibiotics like erythromycin or clarithromycin will increase the toxicity of digoxin because antibiotics affect the liver enzymes, causing digoxin to be metabolized inactivated slower. Similarly, the concurrent use of methotrexate and ibuprofen may result in increased methotrexate toxicity due to inhibition of kidney excretion by ibuprofen. The effectiveness of drugs may be reduced in situations where the action of one drug diminishes the action of the other.
Pharmacodynamic drug–drug interactions occur when interacting drugs have Table 1 examples of drug classes containing several narrow therapeutic index.
Drug Interactions—Principles, Examples and Clinical Consequences
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For example, patients with epilepsy have increased chances of drug interaction, compared with those with other disease states. Thus, there is little room for error when using these drugs. Compromised renal function or changes in the cytochrome P enzymes also can increase the risk of experiencing a severe adverse drug event. Clearly, it is important for pharmacists to recognize and understand which drug interactions can result in significant patient harm.
Drug interactions can have desired, reduced or unwanted effects. The probability of interactions increases with the number of drugs taken. The high rate of prescribed drugs in elderly patients year-old patients take an average of 5 drugs increases the likelihood of drug interactions and thus the risk that drugs themselves can be the cause of hospitalization. Drug interactions occur on pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic levels.
A drug-drug interaction may increase or decrease the effects of one or both drugs. Adverse effects or therapeutic failure may result. Rarely, clinicians can use predictable drug-drug interactions to produce a desired therapeutic effect.