Anatomy And Physiology Of Ear Nose And Throat Pdf

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Skip to content. What is the throat? The throat pharynx and larynx is a ring-like muscular tube that acts as the passageway for air, food and liquid. It is located behind the nose and mouth and connects the mouth oral cavity and nose to the breathing passages trachea [windpipe] and lungs and the esophagus eating tube. The throat also helps in forming speech.

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The ear is the organ of hearing and, in mammals, balance. In mammals, the ear is usually described as having three parts—the outer ear , the middle ear and the inner ear. The outer ear consists of the pinna and the ear canal. Since the outer ear is the only visible portion of the ear in most animals, the word "ear" often refers to the external part alone. The inner ear sits in the bony labyrinth , and contains structures which are key to several senses: the semicircular canals , which enable balance and eye tracking when moving; the utricle and saccule , which enable balance when stationary; and the cochlea , which enables hearing.

The ears of vertebrates are placed somewhat symmetrically on either side of the head, an arrangement that aids sound localisation. The ear develops from the first pharyngeal pouch and six small swellings that develop in the early embryo called otic placodes , which are derived from ectoderm.

The ear may be affected by disease, including infection and traumatic damage. Diseases of the ear may lead to hearing loss , tinnitus and balance disorders such as vertigo , although many of these conditions may also be affected by damage to the brain or neural pathways leading from the ear.

The ear has been adorned by earrings and other jewelry in numerous cultures for thousands of years, and has been subjected to surgical and cosmetic alterations. The human ear consists of three parts—the outer ear , middle ear and inner ear.

The middle ear contains the three small bones—the ossicles —involved in the transmission of sound, and is connected to the throat at the nasopharynx , via the pharyngeal opening of the Eustachian tube. The inner ear contains the otolith organs—the utricle and saccule —and the semicircular canals belonging to the vestibular system , as well as the cochlea of the auditory system.

The outer ear is the external portion of the ear and includes the fleshy visible pinna also called the auricle , the ear canal, and the outer layer of the eardrum also called the tympanic membrane.

The pinna consists of the curving outer rim called the helix , the inner curved rim called the antihelix , and opens into the ear canal. The tragus protrudes and partially obscures the ear canal, as does the facing antitragus.

The hollow region in front of the ear canal is called the concha. The first part of the canal is surrounded by cartilage , while the second part near the eardrum is surrounded by bone. This bony part is known as the auditory bulla and is formed by the tympanic part of the temporal bone. The skin surrounding the ear canal contains ceruminous and sebaceous glands that produce protective ear wax. The ear canal ends at the external surface of the eardrum.

Two sets of muscles are associated with the outer ear: the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles. In some mammals, these muscles can adjust the direction of the pinna. The great auricular nerve , auricular nerve , auriculotemporal nerve , and lesser and greater occipital nerves of the cervical plexus all supply sensation to parts of the outer ear and the surrounding skin. The pinna consists of a single piece of elastic cartilage with a complicated relief on its inner surface and a fairly smooth configuration on its posterior surface.

A tubercle , known as Darwin's tubercle , is sometimes present, lying in the descending part of the helix and corresponding to the ear-tip of mammals. The earlobe consists of areola and adipose tissue. The brain accomplishes this by comparing arrival-times and intensities from each ear, in circuits located in the superior olivary complex and the trapezoid bodies which are connected via pathways to both ears. The middle ear lies between the outer ear and the inner ear.

It consists of an air-filled cavity called the tympanic cavity and includes the three ossicles and their attaching ligaments; the auditory tube ; and the round and oval windows. The ossicles are three small bones that function together to receive, amplify, and transmit the sound from the eardrum to the inner ear. The ossicles are the malleus hammer , incus anvil , and the stapes stirrup.

The stapes is the smallest named bone in the body. The middle ear also connects to the upper throat at the nasopharynx via the pharyngeal opening of the Eustachian tube.

The three ossicles transmit sound from the outer ear to the inner ear. The malleus receives vibrations from sound pressure on the eardrum, where it is connected at its longest part the manubrium or handle by a ligament.

It transmits vibrations to the incus, which in turn transmits the vibrations to the small stapes bone. The wide base of the stapes rests on the oval window.

As the stapes vibrates, vibrations are transmitted through the oval window, causing movement of fluid within the cochlea. The round window allows for the fluid within the inner ear to move. As the stapes pushes the secondary tympanic membrane , fluid in the inner ear moves and pushes the membrane of the round window out by a corresponding amount into the middle ear.

The ossicles help amplify sound waves by nearly 15—20 times. The inner ear sits within the temporal bone in a complex cavity called the bony labyrinth. A central area known as the vestibule contains two small fluid-filled recesses, the utricle and saccule. These connect to the semicircular canals and the cochlea. There are three semicircular canals angled at right angles to each other which are responsible for dynamic balance.

The cochlea is a spiral shell-shaped organ responsible for the sense of hearing. These structures together create the membranous labyrinth. The bony labyrinth refers to the bony compartment which contains the membranous labyrinth, contained within the temporal bone. The inner ear structurally begins at the oval window, which receives vibrations from the incus of the middle ear. Vibrations are transmitted into the inner ear into a fluid called endolymph , which fills the membranous labyrinth.

The endolymph is situated in two vestibules, the utricle and saccule , and eventually transmits to the cochlea, a spiral-shaped structure. The cochlea consists of three fluid-filled spaces: the vestibular duct , the cochlear duct , and the tympanic duct.

The outer ear is supplied by a number of arteries. The posterior auricular artery provides the majority of the blood supply. The anterior auricular arteries provide some supply to the outer rim of the ear and scalp behind it. The posterior auricular artery is a direct branch of the external carotid artery, and the anterior auricular arteries are branches from the superficial temporal artery. The occipital artery also plays a role.

The middle ear is supplied by the mastoid branch of either the occipital or posterior auricular arteries and the deep auricular artery , a branch of the maxillary artery. Other arteries which are present but play a smaller role include branches of the middle meningeal artery , ascending pharyngeal artery , internal carotid artery , and the artery of the pterygoid canal.

The inner ear is supplied by the anterior tympanic branch of the maxillary artery; the stylomastoid branch of the posterior auricular artery; the petrosal branch of middle meningeal artery; and the labyrinthine artery , arising from either the anterior inferior cerebellar artery or the basilar artery. Sound waves travel through the outer ear, are modulated by the middle ear, and are transmitted to the vestibulocochlear nerve in the inner ear.

This nerve transmits information to the temporal lobe of the brain, where it is registered as sound. Sound that travels through the outer ear impacts on the eardrum, and causes it to vibrate. The three ossicles bones transmit this sound to a second window the oval window which protects the fluid-filled inner ear. In detail, the pinna of the outer ear helps to focus a sound, which impacts on the eardrum. The malleus rests on the membrane, and receives the vibration. This vibration is transmitted along the incus and stapes to the oval window.

Two small muscles, the tensor tympani and stapedius , also help modulate noise. The two muscles reflexively contract to dampen excessive vibrations.

Vibration of the oval window causes vibration of the endolymph within the vestibule and the cochlea. The inner ear houses the apparatus necessary to change the vibrations transmitted from the outside world via the middle ear into signals passed along the vestibulocochlear nerve to the brain.

The hollow channels of the inner ear are filled with liquid, and contain a sensory epithelium that is studded with hair cells. The microscopic "hairs" of these cells are structural protein filaments that project out into the fluid. The hair cells are mechanoreceptors that release a chemical neurotransmitter when stimulated. Sound waves moving through fluid flows against the receptor cells of the organ of Corti.

The fluid pushes the filaments of individual cells; movement of the filaments causes receptor cells to become open to receive the potassium -rich endolymph. This causes the cell to depolarise, and creates an action potential that is transmitted along the spiral ganglion , which sends information through the auditory portion of the vestibulocochlear nerve to the temporal lobe of the brain.

The human ear can generally hear sounds with frequencies between 20 Hz and 20 kHz the audio range. Providing balance, when moving or stationary, is also a central function of the ear. The ear facilitates two types of balance: static balance, which allows a person to feel the effects of gravity , and dynamic balance, which allows a person to sense acceleration.

Static balance is provided by two ventricles, the utricle and the saccule. Cells lining the walls of these ventricles contain fine filaments, and the cells are covered with a fine gelatinous layer. Each cell has 50—70 small filaments, and one large filament, the kinocilium.

Within the gelatinous layer lie otoliths , tiny formations of calcium carbonate. When a person moves, these otoliths shift position. This shift alters the positions of the filaments, which opens ion channels within the cell membranes, creating depolarisation and an action potential that is transmitted to the brain along the vestibulocochlear nerve. Dynamic balance is provided through the three semicircular canals. These three canals are orthogonal at right angles to each other.

At the end of each canal is a slight enlargement, known as the ampulla , which contains numerous cells with filaments in a central area called the cupula. The fluid in these canals rotates according to the momentum of the head. When a person changes acceleration, the inertia of the fluid changes. This affects the pressure on the cupula, and results in the opening of ion channels.

This causes depolarisation, which is passed as a signal to the brain along the vestibulocochlear nerve. During embryogenesis the ear develops as three distinct structures: the inner ear, the middle ear and the outer ear. After implantation, around the second to third week the developing embryo consists of three layers: endoderm , mesoderm and ectoderm. The first part of the ear to develop is the inner ear, [15] which begins to form from the ectoderm around the 22nd day of the embryo's development.

Each otic placode recedes below the ectoderm, forms an otic pit and then an otic vesicle. Around the 33rd day of development, the vesicles begin to differentiate.

Ear anatomy

Your nose helps you to breathe and to smell. The inner part of the nose is above the roof of the mouth. The nose is made up of:. External meatus. Triangular-shaped projection in the center of the face. Made up mainly of cartilage and bone and covered by mucous membranes.

Но мысли о Сьюзан не выходили из головы. ГЛАВА 3 Вольво Сьюзан замер в тени высоченного четырехметрового забора с протянутой поверху колючей проволокой. Молодой охранник положил руку на крышу машины. - Пожалуйста, ваше удостоверение. Сьюзан протянула карточку и приготовилась ждать обычные полминуты.

ANATOMY and PHYSIOLOGY of ENT-ORGANS The ear The ear is divided into three large parts The outer ear The outer.

Diseases of the Ear, Nose, and Throat

Беккер хотел подняться на ноги, но у него не было на это сил. Ослепленные глаза горели огнем. Он хотел крикнуть, но в легких не было воздуха, с губ срывалось лишь невнятное мычание. - Нет! - закашлявшись, исторгнул он из груди. Но звук так и не сорвался с его губ.

Однажды в компьютере случился сбой, причину которого никто не мог установить. После многочасовых поисков ее обнаружил младший лаборант. То была моль, севшая на одну из плат, в результате чего произошло короткое замыкание. Тогда-то виновников компьютерных сбоев и стали называть вирусами.

 - Я обнаружил, что кто-то обошел систему фильтров вручную. Эти слова были встречены полным молчанием. Лицо Стратмора из багрового стало пунцовым.

Желаю веселого уик-энда. Чатрукьян заколебался. - Коммандер, мне действительно кажется, что нужно проверить… - Фил, - сказал Стратмор чуть более строго, - ТРАНСТЕКСТ в полном порядке.

Офицер подошел к столу. Кожа на левой руке загорелая, если не считать узкой светлой полоски на мизинце. Беккер показал лейтенанту эту полоску. - Смотрите, полоска осталась незагорелой. Похоже, он носил кольцо.

Поверь. Поэтому я и узнал о его намерении модифицировать Цифровую крепость. Я читал все его мозговые штурмы. Мозговые штурмы. Сьюзан замолчала.

В них использовалось разное топливо - разные элементы. Соши хлопнула в ладоши.

Между шифровалкой и стоянкой для машин не менее дюжины вооруженных охранников. - Я не такой дурак, как вы думаете, - бросил Хейл.  - Я воспользуюсь вашим лифтом. Сьюзан пойдет со. А вы останетесь.

Стратмор стукнул кулаком по столу. - Я должен был знать. Да взять хотя бы его электронное имя.  - Боже мой, Северная Дакота.

Вы говорите, что находитесь в центре, верно. Вы знаете отель Альфонсо Тринадцатый. Один из лучших в городе. - Да, - произнес голос.

Три… три… три… 238 минус 235. Разница равна трем. Он медленно потянул к себе микрофон.

Парень фыркнул. - Сегодня годовщина Иуды Табу. У всех такие… - На ней майка с британским флагом и серьга в форме черепа в одном ухе. По выражению лица панка Беккер понял, что тот знает, о ком идет речь. Мелькнул лучик надежды.

Однако, сделав еще несколько шагов, Стратмор почувствовалчто смотрит в глаза совершенно незнакомой ему женщины. Ее глаза были холодны как лед, а ее обычная мягкость исчезла без следа. Сьюзан стояла прямо и неподвижно, как статуя.

 - Какая правда. Стратмор тяжело дышал. - ТРАНСТЕКСТ.

 Конечно. Так, чтобы не осталось и следа.

ГЛАВА 92 Сьюзан начала спускаться по лестнице в подсобное помещение. Густые клубы пара окутывали корпус ТРАНСТЕКСТА, ступеньки лестницы были влажными от конденсации, она едва не упала, поскользнувшись. Она нервничала, гадая, сколько еще времени продержится ТРАНСТЕКСТ. Сирены продолжали завывать; то и дело вспыхивали сигнальные огни.

Сьюзан постаралась сохранить спокойствие. - Сегодня суббота, Грег. Могу задать тебе точно такой же вопрос. Однако она отлично знала, чем занимался Хейл. Он был законченным компьютерным маньяком.

Соши прокрутила текст до конца раздела и побелела. - О… Боже ты. - В чем дело? - спросил Джабба.

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  1. Melodie B.

    Diseases of the Ear, Nose, and Throat, Second Edition covers more updated topics on the diseases of the ear, nose, and throat, including the methods of examination and treatment of these diseases, compared to those presented in the previous edition.

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