Punishment And Inequality In America Pdf

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This article explores the influence of politics and institutions on poverty and inequality.

Bruce Western, Punishment and Inequality in America. Bruce Western has produced some superb quantitative empirical research in the past decade and a half, from his early work on corporatism, unions and wages e. Western, , ; Western and Healy, to his more recent study of the causes and consequences of incarceration in the United States, of which Punishment and Inequality in America is the culmination. The topics are important. Research questions are clearly posed.

Lynching in America

Many public policy arguments focus on fairness. Is affirmative action fair? Are congressional districts drawn to be fair? Is our tax policy fair? Is our method for funding schools fair? Arguments about justice or fairness have a long tradition in Western civilization. In fact, no idea in Western civilization has been more consistently linked to ethics and morality than the idea of justice. From the Republic, written by the ancient Greek philosopher Plato, to A Theory of Justice, written by the late Harvard philosopher John Rawls, every major work on ethics has held that justice is part of the central core of morality.

Justice means giving each person what he or she deserves or, in more traditional terms, giving each person his or her due. Justice and fairness are closely related terms that are often today used interchangeably.

There have, however, also been more distinct understandings of the two terms. While justice usually has been used with reference to a standard of rightness, fairness often has been used with regard to an ability to judge without reference to one's feelings or interests; fairness has also been used to refer to the ability to make judgments that are not overly general but that are concrete and specific to a particular case.

When people differ over what they believe should be given, or when decisions have to be made about how benefits and burdens should be distributed among a group of people, questions of justice or fairness inevitably arise. In fact, most ethicists today hold the view that there would be no point of talking about justice or fairness if it were not for the conflicts of interest that are created when goods and services are scarce and people differ over who should get what.

When such conflicts arise in our society, we need principles of justice that we can all accept as reasonable and fair standards for determining what people deserve. But saying that justice is giving each person what he or she deserves does not take us very far. How do we determine what people deserve? What criteria and what principles should we use to determine what is due to this or that person? Principles of Justice The most fundamental principle of justice—one that has been widely accepted since it was first defined by Aristotle more than two thousand years ago—is the principle that "equals should be treated equally and unequals unequally.

And if Jack is paid more than Jill simply because he is a man, or because he is white, then we have an injustice—a form of discrimination—because race and sex are not relevant to normal work situations. There are, however, many differences that we deem as justifiable criteria for treating people differently. For example, we think it is fair and just when a parent gives his own children more attention and care in his private affairs than he gives the children of others; we think it is fair when the person who is first in a line at a theater is given first choice of theater tickets; we think it is just when the government gives benefits to the needy that it does not provide to more affluent citizens; we think it is just when some who have done wrong are given punishments that are not meted out to others who have done nothing wrong; and we think it is fair when those who exert more efforts or who make a greater contribution to a project receive more benefits from the project than others.

These criteria—need, desert, contribution, and effort—we acknowledge as justifying differential treatment, then, are numerous. On the other hand, there are also criteria that we believe are not justifiable grounds for giving people different treatment. In the world of work, for example, we generally hold that it is unjust to give individuals special treatment on the basis of age, sex, race, or their religious preferences.

If the judge's nephew receives a suspended sentence for armed robbery when another offender unrelated to the judge goes to jail for the same crime, or the brother of the Director of Public Works gets the million dollar contract to install sprinklers on the municipal golf course despite lower bids from other contractors, we say that it's unfair.

We also believe it isn't fair when a person is punished for something over which he or she had no control, or isn't compensated for a harm he or she suffered. Different Kinds of Justice There are different kinds of justice. Distributive justice refers to the extent to which society's institutions ensure that benefits and burdens are distributed among society's members in ways that are fair and just.

When the institutions of a society distribute benefits or burdens in unjust ways, there is a strong presumption that those institutions should be changed. For example, the American institution of slavery in the pre-civil war South was condemned as unjust because it was a glaring case of treating people differently on the basis of race.

A second important kind of justice is retributive or corrective justice. Retributive justice refers to the extent to which punishments are fair and just. In general, punishments are held to be just to the extent that they take into account relevant criteria such as the seriousness of the crime and the intent of the criminal, and discount irrelevant criteria such as race.

It would be barbarously unjust, for example, to chop off a person's hand for stealing a dime, or to impose the death penalty on a person who by accident and without negligence injured another party. Studies have frequently shown that when blacks murder whites, they are much more likely to receive death sentences than when whites murder whites or blacks murder blacks. These studies suggest that injustice still exists in the criminal justice system in the United States.

Yet a third important kind of justice is compensatory justice. Compensatory justice refers to the extent to which people are fairly compensated for their injuries by those who have injured them; just compensation is proportional to the loss inflicted on a person.

Some argue that mine owners should compensate the workers whose health has been ruined. The foundations of justice can be traced to the notions of social stability, interdependence, and equal dignity.

As the ethicist John Rawls has pointed out, the stability of a society—or any group, for that matter—depends upon the extent to which the members of that society feel that they are being treated justly. When some of society's members come to feel that they are subject to unequal treatment, the foundations have been laid for social unrest, disturbances, and strife. The members of a community, Rawls holds, depend on each other, and they will retain their social unity only to the extent that their institutions are just.

Moreover, as the philosopher Immanuel Kant and others have pointed out, human beings are all equal in this respect: they all have the same dignity, and in virtue of this dignity they deserve to be treated as equals. Whenever individuals are treated unequally on the basis of characteristics that are arbitrary and irrelevant, their fundamental human dignity is violated.

Justice, then, is a central part of ethics and should be given due consideration in our moral lives. In evaluating any moral decision, we must ask whether our actions treat all persons equally. If not, we must determine whether the difference in treatment is justified: are the criteria we are using relevant to the situation at hand?

But justice is not the only principle to consider in making ethical decisions. Sometimes principles of justice may need to be overridden in favor of other kinds of moral claims such as rights or society's welfare.

Nevertheless, justice is an expression of our mutual recognition of each other's basic dignity, and an acknowledgement that if we are to live together in an interdependent community we must treat each other as equals. It was updated in August We welcome your comments, suggestions, or alternative points of view.

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Many public policy arguments focus on fairness. Is affirmative action fair? Are congressional districts drawn to be fair? Is our tax policy fair? Is our method for funding schools fair?

Search this site. A Rorschach Study of Child Development. Abraham PDF. Adolescence in Context PDF. Advances in Catalytic Processes: Asymmetric Catalysis v.

Income inequality in the United States is the extent to which income is distributed in differing amounts among the American population. The U. The economic and political impacts of inequality may include slower GDP growth, reduced income mobility , higher poverty rates, greater usage of household debt leading to increased risk of financial crises, and political polarization. Measurement is debated, as inequality measures vary significantly, for example, across datasets [6] [7] or whether the measurement is taken based on cash compensation market income or after taxes and transfer payments. The Gini coefficient is a widely accepted statistic that applies comparisons across jurisdictions, with a zero indicating perfect equality and 1 indicating maximum inequality. Further, various public and private data sets measure those incomes, e.


In Punishment and Inequality in America, sociologist Bruce Western explores the recent era of mass incarceration and the serious social and economic.


Income inequality in the United States

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Western and Meredith A. Kleykamp and J.

The lynching of African Americans was terrorism, a widely supported campaign to enforce racial subordination and segregation. Read the report to learn more about lynching in America. Over a hundred years after Thomas Miles Sr.

Religion in China

Edited by David Brady and Linda M. Burton

Офицер гордо кивнул: - Да. Когда церковь получит все останки этого великого человека, она причислит его к лику святых и разместит отдельные части его тела в разных соборах, чтобы все могли проникнуться их величием. - А у вас здесь… - Беккер не сдержал смешка. - Да. Это очень важная часть! - заявил лейтенант.

 И вы не хотите ничего предпринять. - Нет. Он подстраховался - передал копию ключа анонимной третьей стороне на тот случай… ну, если с ним что-нибудь случится. Это можно было предвидеть, - подумала Сьюзан. -Ангел-хранитель. - И, полагаю, если с Танкадо что-нибудь случится, эта загадочная личность продаст ключ.

И горячей воды. Беккер почувствовал комок в горле. - Когда она уезжает. Двухцветный словно будто только что очнулся. - Когда? - Он заржал.

 - Мидж зло посмотрела на него и протянула руку.

Болван этот полицейский. Ну только подумайте. Усадить человека моих лет на мотоцикл. Просто позор. - Могу я для вас что-нибудь сделать.

Пользователь вводил информацию с помощью крошечных контактов, закрепленных на пальцах. Контакты соединялись в определенной последовательности, которую компьютер затем расшифровывал и переводил на нормальный английский. Киллер щелкнул миниатюрным тумблером, и очки превратились в дисплей. Опустив руки, он незаметными быстрыми движениями соединял кончики пальцев. Перед его глазами появилось сообщение, которое он должен был отправить.

 Вы хотите отправить его домой. - Нет. Пусть остается.

Затем он быстро побежит в заднюю часть собора, словно бы за помощью, и в возникшей неразберихе исчезнет прежде, чем люди поймут, что произошло. Пять человек. Четверо. Всего трое. Халохот стиснул револьвер в руке, не вынимая из кармана.

К нему приближалась девушка, с которой он столкнулся в туалетной комнате. Она помахала ему рукой. - Подождите, мистер. Ну что еще? - застонал.  - Хочет предъявить мне обвинение во вторжении в личную жизнь.

Заручившись поддержкой федеральных фондов и получив карт-бланш на все необходимые меры для решения проблемы, АНБ приступило к созданию невозможного - первой универсальной машины для вскрытия шифров. Вопреки широко распространенному мнению о том, что такой компьютер создать невозможно, АНБ осталось верным своему девизу: возможно все; на невозможное просто требуется больше времени. Через пять лет, истратив полмиллиона рабочих часов и почти два миллиарда долларов, АН Б вновь доказало жизненность своего девиза. Последний из трех миллионов процессоров размером с почтовую марку занял свое место, все программное обеспечение было установлено, и керамическая оболочка наглухо заделана. ТРАНСТЕКСТ появился на свет.

Некоторое время он сидел словно парализованный, затем в панике выбежал в коридор. - Мидж. Скорее .

Увидав королеву шифровалки Сьюзан Флетчер, Чатрукьян моментально отвел. Он боялся ее как огня. Ее мозги работали словно на совсем другом уровне. Она подавляла его своей красотой, и всякий раз, когда он оказывался рядом, язык у него заплетался.

Рисковать еще раз ему не хотелось. - Сьюзан, - в его голосе послышалась решимость, - я прошу тебя помочь мне найти ключ Хейла. - Что? - Сьюзан встала, глаза ее сверкали.

Дверцы автобуса открылись, но из него никто не вышел. Дизельный двигатель взревел, набирая обороты, и в тот момент, когда автобус уже готов был тронуться, из соседнего бара выскочили трое молодых людей. Они бежали за уже движущимся автобусом, крича и размахивая руками.

3 Response
  1. Stimpholozza

    We normally relate the prison boom to the problem of crime in America. Some say that we have more Read Online · Download PDF. Save. Cite this Item.

  2. Jude B.

    In the decade just before the outbreak, Progressives had worked tirelessly to narrow the gap between rich and poor that had blown wide open in the Gilded Age.

  3. AmГ­n R.

    Punishment and Inequality in America. 1. In , Alexis de Tocqueville and Gustave de Beaumont were dispatched to America to study the pentitentiary.

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