A First Lab In Circuits And Electronics Pdf

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A First Lab in Circuits and Electronics - Yannis Tsividis

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You are not required to purchase electronic components for the class; they are stocked within the laboratory. However, you can use this list to gather these components at the beginning of each class. Your breadboard came with screw terminals for a reason. Banana plug connectors can plug into the terminals. Thus, setup your power rails by running wires from the three or four banana terminals on your board.

When you're ready , plug your power supply into the banana connectors directly. It's much more convenient. Unfortunately, many students throw away their banana connectors rather than attaching them. In the future, assemble your breadboards completely; they work better that way. On the other hand, die-hard high-frequency analog prototypers will abandon breadboard use entirely for setting up "dead-bug" circuits on a bare copper ground plane.

This practice, which places chips upside down making them look like dead bugs, can improve performance but is less flexible it can require glue in some cases, and will definitely require solder. In our lab, using big enough bypass capacitors see "Power supply noise" tip above is the closest we'll get to low noise prototyping.

Every real operational amplifier OA has a small current imbalance between its inputs that manifests itself like a small DC source connected to one of the inputs. It is this additional signal that is causing your output to do strange things. There are several ways to go about balancing operational amplifier input currents. For example, most OA's have "balance" pins that can be used to null the offset with a potentiometer.

Before you build your circuit but after you wire power to your operational amplifier, you tie the outer legs of the potentiometer to the two balance pins, and tie the wiper to the negative rail. Short the inputs of the OA together, and adjust the pot wiper until zero appears on the output when the operational amplifier is powered on, of course.

When balance pins are not available, a very similar procedure can be used to add or subtract a small offset to the inputs of the OA. Even after calibrating the OA input offset, you may still see output offsets especially if you adjusted the operational amplifier when it was removed from the rest of the circuit.

Even when currents into the OA are equal, if the equivalent resistance to ground differs, those equal currents will generate unequal input voltages.

So try tricks to make the resistances looking out of the inputs look similar. For example, instead of shorting your non-inverting input to ground, tie it to ground with a resistor. Adjust the resistor size until your offset goes away. Keep in mind that OA offset varies with temperature and can drift with time. One of the reasons why electronics are "burned in" at the factory is to reduce the rate of drift here, voltage references come to mind.

Therefore, nulling offset is a much more complicated problem in a product that has a lifetime longer than one class time. Stray parasitic capacitance is everywhere.

In fact, the pins of an IC and the air between them form a capacitor of at least a few picoFarad. If you can, try to choose circuit elements that dominate over or compensate for these strays.

If setting an RC, choose a low R to give you a high C; however, realize that the low R may result in a higher power draw from your circuit. Potentiometers are often used as two-terminal devices in this laboratory as variable resistors. Instead, try using all three terminals. A potentiometer is nothing more than a voltage divider, and the screw moves the output of the voltage divider the middle pin from the high voltage to the low voltage.

If you need to tune a voltage divider, just use a potentiometer instead! Keep in mind that you should probably choose a potentiometer with a size that only draws a few milliamps at most from your circuit.

Even though you probably only care about the resistance ratios, you should care about the current draw and power dissipation as well. If not for any other reason, it will keep you from getting blisters when you touch your circuit. Make sure that you didn't swap your collector and emitter i. As you can see, the only difference between the emitter and the collector are the "size. Our models of a transistor assume that the current gain is relatively infinite, and so they will poorly predict how a circuit will work in the other case.

Because of the "size" of the base-emitter diode, it is easy to reach the reverse breakdown voltage of the base-emitter diode if it is connected improperly. So hooking a transistor up "backwards" can either damage the transistor or simply produce a poorly performing circuit. This website presents lengthy discussions of circuits for beginners.

The discussions are interesting and include helpful animations that treat electric potential like fluid flowing into and out of resistors. There are also sections that are meant to be displayed on a whiteboard, and so those pages read like lectures. There are too many good pages to list here. You may want to start looking at the master index of circuits "circuit stories". Engineers are not scientists in the traditional sense.

Scientists generate knowledge about the natural world by observing natural phenomena in fact, the word "science" comes from the Latin for "knowledge" or "knowing". Engineers use that knowledge to generate new technologies that aid in human activities, but they are rarely concerned with generating new knowledge about the natural world.

Instead, engineers generate knowledge about their own creations. While the subject matter is different, the method behind the generation of knowledge is identical. That is, engineers are "technoscientists"; they use the scientific method to generate knowledge about technology.

In the engineering laboratory , you should practice all of the steps of the scientific method. In particular,. For the lab reports you submit to me , you do not need an abstract nor any appendices. With the possible exception of hand-drawn figures , all material should be in-line with the text of the document. Regardless of your section choices, be sure to pay attention to the course policies on lab reports e. For myriad reasons, professional technical documents are rarely produced with popular programs like Microsoft Word.

In areas that are highly influenced by mathematics e. Many TeX pronounced "tech" users prefer the LaTeX suite of macros to simplify common typesetting tasks. TeX documents, like the source code for computer programs, start as text files that are later "compiled" into their final document form.

A typical TeX workflow is. Thus, many people feel that TeX typesetting is more like programming than it is like using standard word processing tools. So it's not surprising that you'll need a " compiler ", editor , and viewer note: the ECE computer labs are already equipped with everything you need to get started.

Although groups may work together outside of class when deciphering their results, all handed-in material must be unique. That is, each group should actually compose their lab reports separately. Likewise, students may help each other outside of class when completing the pre-lab assignments, but the assignment submissions should reflect individual work and not any sort of collaboration.

Any written material turned in to the instructor lab reports, pre-labs, exams, etc. In these cases, the incident must be reported to the ECE department. Circuits and electronics lab covering basic electronics and principles of electrical measurements, signal conditioning, and instrumentation.

Make the changes listed in the course packet errata. Each group needs access to breadboard e. This breadboard can be used in several laboratory courses e. The banana-connector posts should NOT be removed. They greatly simplify and expedite re-connecting the external laboratory power supplies each week. It is not advisable to discard those posts.

Lab Report Writing Resources Engineers are not scientists in the traditional sense. In particular, Define the question e. Suggest that cable resistance or component tolerances may have changed the effective corner frequency.

Suggest a new experiment that measures cable resistance and repeats trials over several components with tight tolerances Publish results e. Alternatively, the conclusions section could be called an "Analysis" section and a new "Conclusions" section could be added that summarizes the report.

The section structure you choose should help reinforce the message you are communicating in your report; keep the steps of the scientific method in mind. Technical Details Here are some other general rules that you should consider when writing lab reports for me. Reports should be written from the following point of view: the reader is knowledgeable on the subject of electronics but knows little of your project. You must, therefore, explain your project in the most organized, economical fashion possible.

This neatness and readability of your report is a significant factor as well as the actual contents. You should try to explain to the reader how the different parts of this circuit work in a clear and organized fashion. Lab reports should be computer generated. Look below for information on obtaining digital images you can use in your report. You may include hand-drawn figures , but: Draw them on engineering graph paper.

Include them either as attachments to the end of the report or paste or photocopy them into the body of the report. Instead of using hand-drawn images, you may use digital photographs e. In that case, make sure important details are shown clearly e. Pages should be numbered. You may use first-person active voice or third-person passive voice, but you should be consistent.

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Pavlic and included in this website and any related pages, including its archives, is protected by copyright and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3. Use of this site and any of the materials thereon constitutes acceptance of the CCPL by the user. Stray parasitic capacitance is everywhere. In fact, the pins of an IC and the air between them form a capacitor of at least a few picoFarad. If you can, try to choose circuit elements that dominate over or compensate for these strays. If setting an RC, choose a low R to give you a high C; however, realize that the low R may result in a higher power draw from your circuit.

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A First Lab In Circuits And Electronics

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Use of this website is expressly conditioned upon the user's acceptance of the terms and provisions of the CCPL. Use of this site and any of the materials thereon constitutes acceptance of the CCPL by the user. You are not required to purchase electronic components for the class; they are stocked within the laboratory. However, you can use this list to gather these components at the beginning of each class. Your breadboard came with screw terminals for a reason.

A First Lab in Circuits and Electronics

A First Lab in Circuits and Electronics9780471386957, 0471386952

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aeo Experiment 1: Measuring DC Voltages and Currents aeo Experiment 2: Simple DC Circuits Resistors and Resistive Sensors aeo Experiment 3: Generating.


A First Lab in Circuits and Electronics

Home Login Register Search. Report this link. It has been written for today's students. Among other things, today's students are simply bored when required to go through a long series of procedures, the only purpose of which is to teach measurement techniques and to verify the theory.

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Боюсь, что в ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ завелся какой-то неизвестный вирус. - Вирус? - снисходительно хмыкнул Стратмор, - Фил, я высоко ценю твою бдительность, очень высоко. Но мы с мисс Флетчер проводим диагностику особого рода. Это файл высочайшей сложности. Я должен был тебя предупредить, но не знал, что сегодня твое дежурство.

Download A First Lab In Circuits And Electronics pdf.

В этот момент в нескольких метрах под помещением шифровалки Стратмор сошел с лестницы на площадку. Сегодняшний день стал для него днем сплошных фиаско. То, что началось как в высшей степени патриотическая миссия, самым неожиданным образом вышло из-под контроля.

Затем, с еще мокрыми волосами, угощал поверженного соперника орешками и соком. Как у всех молодых профессоров, университетское жалованье Дэвида было довольно скромным. Время от времени, когда надо было продлить членство в теннисном клубе или перетянуть старую фирменную ракетку, он подрабатывал переводами для правительственных учреждений в Вашингтоне и его окрестностях. В связи с одной из таких работ он и познакомился со Сьюзан. В то прохладное осеннее утро у него был перерыв в занятиях, и после ежедневной утренней пробежки он вернулся в свою трехкомнатную университетскую квартиру.

 Дэвид, - вздохнула она, заметив на тумбочке его записку.  - Скажи мне, что такое без воска. Ты же знаешь, что шифры, которые не поддаются, не выходят у меня из головы. Дэвид молчал. - Расскажи.

Внезапно ее охватило ощущение опасности. - Ну, давай же, - настаивал Хейл.  - Стратмор практически выгнал Чатрукьяна за то, что тот скрупулезно выполняет свои обязанности.

Жертва всегда ищет глазами убийцу. Она делает это инстинктивно. Фонтейна эти слова озадачили.

 - Он улыбнулся и сразу перешел к делу.  - Мы вместе спустимся.  - Он поднял беретту.

Стратмор, в свою очередь, тоже сгорал от нетерпения, но подругой причине. Если Дэвид и дальше задержится, придется послать ему на помощь кого-то из полевых агентов АНБ, а это было связано с риском, которого коммандер всеми силами хотел избежать. - Коммандер, - сказал Чатрукьян, - я уверен, что нам надо проверить… - Подождите минутку, - сказал Стратмор в трубку, извинившись перед собеседником. Он прикрыл микрофон телефона рукой и гневно посмотрел на своего молодого сотрудника.

 - Я хотел бы составить официальную жалобу городским властям. Вы мне поможете. Человек вашей репутации - ценнейший свидетель.

A First Lab in Circuits and Electronics

Даже директор не ставил под сомнение чутье Мидж Милкен - у нее была странная особенность всегда оказываться правой.

Сосредоточившись, Сьюзан перезагрузила Следопыта и нажала клавишу ВВОД. Терминал пискнул. СЛЕДОПЫТ ЗАПУЩЕН Сьюзан знала, что пройдет несколько часов, прежде чем Следопыт вернется. Она проклинала Хейла, недоумевая, каким образом ему удалось заполучить ее персональный код и с чего это вдруг его заинтересовал ее Следопыт. Встав, Сьюзан решительно направилась подошла к терминалу Хейла.

Банкиры, брокеры, террористы, шпионы - один мир, один алгоритм. Анархия. - Какой у нас выбор? - спросила Сьюзан.

 - Ролдан понимал, что сейчас они скорее всего лежат в постели, но ему не хотелось оскорблять чувства звонившего.  - Оставьте паспорт у администратора, его зовут Мануэль. Скажите, что вы от .