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*Problem Statement 4 situations 2. Sample Solution 3. Notes for the Instructor.*

- Electronic Device Books
- Electronic devices and circuits
- Electronic Devices and Circuits, 5th Edition
- 18. Theodore F. Bogart, Jr. Electronic Devises and Circuits. Fourth Edition. Prentice Hall.

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## Electronic Device Books

Problem Statement 4 situations 2. Sample Solution 3. Notes for the Instructor. In most cases, this energy is provided by a circuit called the power supply. The power supply is a key part of any electronic system, since it energizes the other circuits. A power supply failure will affect all of the other circuits. The power supply changes the available electric energy usually alternating current-ac to the form required by various circuits within the electronic system usually direct current-dc.

A power supply converts the ac voltage to a steady dc level. The output signal is filtered to an accurate dc output voltage. This dc voltage is automatically maintained through regulation.

The most common electrical power source is that furnished by the local power company, and is volts alternating current at a frequency of 50 or 60 Hertz cycles per second. Batteries are also electrical power sources. Power supplies may be built or designed to meet certain requirements.

The four blocks of the power supply include: 1 transformer, whose purpose is to step-up or step-down the alternating current voltage to levels needed by the boom box, television, computer or other electronic circuits of various electrical equipment or appliances; 2 rectifier, which is used to change an AC input into a pulsating DC output; 3 filter, which is needed to smooth out the direct current; and 4 regulator, which is used to eliminate the decrease in output voltage of a power supply when a load is applied.

Figure 1 shows the six blocks of a dc power supply. Formulas are used in determining voltage regulation, filter capacity, etc. Skills in algebra and other areas of mathematics are useful in utilizing the formulas correctly.

While studying the power supply ILAP, you will have the opportunity to reinforce algebraic concepts. A schematic diagram of the electronic power supply is shown in Figure 2. This diagram indicates how the four blocks of Figure 1 are connected to form the power supply. This ILAP is designed to provide experiences in calculating values needed to design an electronic power supply.

For most electronic equipment a voltage of less than volts is required, and therefore a step-down transformer is needed. The transformer consists of two or more coils a primary winding and secondary winding linked together by magnetic flux.

A step-down transformers primary voltage is greater than the secondary voltage. If the primary winding turns exceed the secondary turns, the transformer steps the voltage down. In the design of the power supply one should be able to determine the secondary voltage mathematically using the following relationship for an ideal transformer:. Use algebraic rules or calculations to show that Equation 1 may be rearranged as. Also use algebraic rules or calculations to show that Equation 1 may be rewritten as.

The concept of turns per volt will be used in modifying the secondary voltage for the design of an electronic power supply. Determine how many turns will be required for a transformer voltage of 14 volts when the present secondary is rated at 6.

How many turns will be required for a new 14V winding? The diode is a semiconductor device that exhibits characteristics that lie between those of insulators and conductors. Silicon is the most extensively used semiconductor material for diodes.

When the diode is forward-biased connected to conduct or behave like a conductor it acts like a closed on switch which will permit current to flow. On the other hand, when the diode is reversed-biased characteristics like an insulator , it acts like an open switch off. A forward-biased silicon diode acts as a closed switch with a small voltage of 0. Germanium, another semiconductor material used for diodes, has a barrier potential of 0. The full-wave bridge rectifier is the most commonly used type of rectifier circuit used in dc power supplies.

Operation of the bridge requires the forward-bias of two of the diodes. Diodes D2 and D3 conduct during the positive half-cycle of the input from the transformer. The remaining two diodes do not conduct.

With the negative half-cycle, diodes D1 and D4 conduct while D2 and D3 do not conduct. This is shown in Figure 2. The bridge, in short, switches both half-cycles at the input a full wave through to the output in only one direction. However, by applying a negative voltage across the diode, it will be reverse biased and carries almost no current. If this negative voltage increases to the certain amount breakdown voltage , the diode would go into breakdown. This voltage is known as the peak inverse voltage PIV.

Determine the output voltage for a bridge rectifier utilizing a transformer with a Vrms primary and 18 Vrms secondary voltage. In order to convert the Vrms root mean square voltage to the Vpeak peak voltage , the following equation will be utilized.

The following formula can be used to calculate PIV:. This pulsating dc output is not usable for most electronic circuits. A signal closer to pure direct current is required. Pulsating direct current contains an ac component which is undesirable for the output of a power supply.

The ac component in the power supply is called ripple and must be removed for most circuit applications. A filter circuit is used to remove the ripple and provide an unvarying dc voltage. A common technique used for filtering is the capacitive filter.

Capacitors are devices which store energy in the form of a charge and then later deliver that charge to a load. The capacitor filter provides a nearly smooth straight line dc output voltage from the filter. A capacitor connected across a rectifier output quickly charges at the beginning of a cycle and slowly discharges after the positive peak. Variation in the output voltage due to the capacitor charging and discharging is called the ripple voltage.

Furthermore, ripple factor r can be defined by comparing ripple voltage Vr p-p to the dc value of voltage Vdc. Figure 3 shows the relationship between ripple and dc voltages. The amount of ripple across a filter can be further reduced by using an additional RC filter section as shown in Figure 4.

The purpose of RC section is to pass most of the dc component while attenuating the ripple voltage. Requirement 3. Determine the ripple factor for a bridge rectifier with a Vrms, 60 Hertz primary transformer. The transformer has a ratio. The filter circuit includes a 50F microfarads capacitor with a 2.

Prepare a written technical report on the design of a capacitive filter for a power supply. Your report should include the description and operation of the major blocks, specifications, and components and part numbers to design and fabricate the system. You will be provided a report format. Any variation in the line voltage supplying the rectifier will increase the variation of the rectifier output voltage.

Furthermore, varying the load resistor across the terminal of the power supply will change the voltage level. To overcome all these problems, a Zener diode can be used as shown in Figure 2. The characteristic curve of a Zener diode is shown in Figure 5.

IR Since the Zener diode and load resistance are in parallel, the voltage across them must be the same. See Figure 2. Applying the voltage divider rule, the following relationship is obtained. It is assumed the filtered output voltage,Vdc, is fixed, while the load resistance varies.

We seek to determine the minimum load resistance that will turn the Zener diode on maintain regulation. The resistance value for R1 is assumed to be 1 k and the dc voltage, Vdc, provided by filter stage is equal to 30V.

Nsec Vsec This expression may be rearranged using properties of proportions. Use Algebraic rules or calculations to show that the relationship:. Nsec I pri Using the relationship above and properties of proportions and also properties of equalities,.

The transformer has a 3. Since a 14 V secondary is required. Since we have a full-wave bridge rectifier, the peak output voltage must take into account the voltage drop across two diodes.

Note: The ripple factor is an indication of the effectiveness of the filter. The lower the ripple factor, the better the filter. The minimum load resistance is given by Equation 9 will be used. As long as the load resistance is greater than but less than , this Zener diode will maintain the constant voltage across the load.

Students are concurrently introduced to algebra and semiconductor devices in order to design and model an electronic power supply. Students are often presented with problems in which there is a need to use algebraic rules and manipulations to rearrange given equations into equivalent equations, thus allowing them to evaluate a variable directly.

Such is the case in this project. Emphasize these skills to the students. Students enrolled in electronic classes have the opportunity to work in a laboratory setting where they are provided experiences relating the algebraic concepts to electronic applications. An opportunity should be provided for students enrolled in algebra classes to visit an electronics laboratory and participate in activities which will allow them to understand the electronic concepts presented in this project.

This project should take from hours to complete. The project is an outstanding opportunity for engineering technology students to see the electronic principles and applications of algebraic concepts.

## Electronic devices and circuits

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## Electronic Devices and Circuits, 5th Edition

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### 18. Theodore F. Bogart, Jr. Electronic Devises and Circuits. Fourth Edition. Prentice Hall.

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А ведь еще вчера она думала, что потеряла его навсегда. - Дэвид, - вздохнула она, заметив на тумбочке его записку. - Скажи мне, что такое без воска.

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Theodore F. Bogart Jeffrey S. Beasley. Guillermo Rico. Publication. Data. Columbus, Ohio: Prentice Hall. Publication. Date. Edition. 5th ed. Physical.