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- Solar Energy Engineering. Processes and Systems
- Solar Energy Engineering Processes and Systems Second Edition
- Solar Energy Engineering
Solar Energy Engineering. Processes and Systems
Home Forum Login. Solar Energy Engineering. Processes and Systems Soteris A. Kalogirou Auth. Download PDF. Summary of Solar Energy Engineering. All rights reserved. Page 3 Preface The origin and continuation of humankind is based on solar energy. The most basic processes sup- porting life on earth, such as photosynthesis and the rain cycle, are driven by the solar energy.
Despite this, only recently, during the last 40 years, has the solar energy been harnessed with specialized equipment and used as an alternative source of energy, mainly because it is free and does not harm the environment. The original idea for writing this book came after a number of my review papers were published in the journal Progress in Energy and Combustion Science. The purpose of this book is to give under- graduate and postgraduate students and engineers a resource on the basic principles and applications of solar energy systems and processes.
The book can be used as part of a complete two-semester junior or senior engineering course on solar thermal systems. This can be done by selecting only the descriptive parts of the various chapters and omitting most of the mathematical details, which can be included in the course for more advanced students.
The prerequisites for the second part are, at least, introductory courses in thermodynamics and heat transfer. The book can also be used as a reference guide to the practicing engineers who want to understand how solar systems operate and how to design the systems. Because the book includes a number of solved examples, it can also be used for a self-study. The international system of units SI is used exclusively in the book. The material presented in this book covers a large variety of technologies for the conversion of solar energy to provide hot water, heating, cooling, drying, desalination, and electricity.
In the introductory chapter, the book provides a review of energy-related environmental problems and the state of the climate. It also gives a short historical introduction to solar energy, giving some details of the early applications.
It concludes with a review of renewable energy technologies not covered in the book. Chapter 2 gives an analysis of solar geometry, the way to calculate shading effects, and the basic principles of solar radiation-heat transfer. It concludes with a review of the solar radiation-measuring instruments and the way to construct a typical meteorological year.
The chapter also includes the second-law analysis of solar thermal systems. Chapter 4 deals with the experimental methods to determine the performance of solar collectors. The dynamic test method is also presented. Finally, the chapter describes the characteristics of data acquisition systems.
Page 4 xvi Preface Chapter 5 discusses solar water-heating systems. Both passive and active systems are described, as well as the characteristics and thermal analysis of heat storage systems for both water and air systems. The module and array design methods and the characteristics of differential thermostats are then described. Finally, methods to calculate the hot-water demand are given, as are international standards used to evaluate the solar water-heater performance.
The chapter also includes simple system models and practical considerations for the setup of solar water-heating systems. Chapter 6 deals with solar space-heating and cooling systems. Initially, methods to estimate the thermal load of buildings are given. Then, some general features of passive space design are presented, followed by the active system design. Active systems include both water-based and air-based systems. The solar cooling systems described include both adsorption and absorption systems.
The latter include the lithium bromide—water and ammonia-water systems. Finally, the characteristics for solar cooling with absorption refrigeration systems are given. Industrial process heat systems are described in Chapter 7. First, the general design considerations are given, in which solar industrial air and water systems are examined.
Subsequently, the charac- teristics of solar steam generation methods are presented, followed by solar chemistry applications, which include reforming of fuels and fuel cells. The chapter also includes a description of active and passive solar dryers and greenhouses. Solar desalination systems are examined in Chapter 8. The chapter initially analyzes the relation of water and energy as well as water demand and consumption and the relation of energy and desali- nation.
Subsequently, the exergy analysis of the desalination processes is presented, followed by a review of the direct and indirect desalination systems. The chapter also includes a review of the renewable energy desalination systems and parameters to consider in the selection of a desalination process. Although the book deals mainly with solar thermal systems, photovoltaics are also examined in Chapter 9.
First the general characteristics of semiconductors are given, followed by photovoltaic panels and related equipment. Then, a review of possible applications and methods to design photo- voltaic PV systems are presented. Chapter 10 deals with solar thermal power systems. First, the general design considerations are given, followed by the presentation of the three basic technologies: the parabolic trough, the power tower, and the dish systems.
This is followed by the thermal analysis of the basic cycles of solar thermal power plants. Finally, solar ponds, which are a form of large solar collector and storage system that can be used for solar power generation, are examined. In Chapter 11, methods for designing and modeling solar energy systems are presented.
These include the f-chart method and program, the utilizability method, the F, f-chart method, and the unutilizability method. The chapter concludes with an analysis of the limitations of simulations. No design of a solar system is complete unless it includes an economic analysis.
It includes a description of life cycle analysis and the time value of money. Life cycle analysis is then presented through a series of examples, which include system optimization and payback time estimation. Subsequently, the P1, P2 method is presented, and the chapter concludes with an analysis of the uncertainties in economic analysis. A number of international ISO standards were also used, especially with respect to collector perfor- mance evaluation Chapter 4 and complete system testing Chapter 5.
In many examples presented in this book, the use of a spreadsheet program is suggested. Finally, I would like to thank my familydmy wife Rena, my son Andreas, and my daughter Annadfor the patience they have shown during the lengthy period required to write this book. Soteris Kalogirou Cyprus University of Technology. In Chapter 1 there is an update on Section 1. The section on wind energy 1. The following sections are also updated and now include more information.
These are Section 1. In Chapter 2 the sections on thermal radiation 2. In Section 2. Additionally a new Section 2. Some of the charts in this chapter are improved and the ones that the reader can use to get useful data are now printed larger in landscape mode to be more visible.
This applies also to other charts in other chapters. New types of asymmetric CPC designs are now given in Section 3. A new Section 3. Section 3. In Section 3. In Chapter 4 a new Section 4. The listing of the various international standards is updated as well as the description and current status of the various standards. In Chapter 5, Section 5.
The same applies for Section 5. In Section 5. The status of the various international standards in Section 5. Finally, two new exercises are given. In Chapter 6, Section 6. Section 6. In Chapter 7, Section 7. Section 7. Particularly, a diagram of a single-slope solar still is now given as well as the design equations for Section 8.
Page 7 xx Preface to Second Edition Chapter 9 is restructured considerably. In particular, Section 9. In the latter a new section is added on building- integrated photovoltaics BIPV. A new Section 9. Section 9. In Chapter 10, Section A new Section Additionally, Section
Solar Energy Engineering Processes and Systems Second Edition
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