Nature And Scope Of Communication Pdf

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Meaning Of Oral Communication. It is essential at every stage of our social and business dealings. We communicate orally with our family, friends, in meetings, committees, conferences, over the telephone, radio, public, etc.

Communication is very important for the human beings. It really regulates and shapes all human behaviour. Communication is the mechanism through which human relations exist and develop. It is good to have an understanding of communication in its wider sense.

What is Communication?

Development communication refers to the use of communication to facilitate social development. Development communication has not been labeled as the "Fifth Theory of the Press", with "social transformation and development", and "the fulfillment of basic needs" as its primary purposes. Their three main ideas are: purposive, value-laden, and pragmatic. Quebral expanded the definition, calling it "the art and science of human communication applied to the speedy transformation of a country and the mass of its people from poverty to a dynamic state of economic growth that makes possible greater social equality and the larger fulfillment of the human potential".

Nora Cruz-Quebral, Ph. Dioscoro L. Umali, a national scientist in the area of plant breeding titled "In Search of Breakthroughs in Agricultural Development". A recent and more encompassing definition of development communication states that it is:. Erskine Childers defined it as:. Development support communications is a discipline in development planning and implementation in which more adequate account is taken of human behavioural factors in the design of development projects and their objectives.

According to the World Bank, the Development Communication is the "integration of strategic communication in development projects" based on a clear understanding of indigenous realities.

Bessette defined development communication as a "planned and systematic application of communication resources, channels, approaches and strategies to support the goals of socio-economic, political and cultural development".

Who are development communicators? What qualities do they possess? Nora C. Quebral [14] gave a succinct characterization:. According to Felstehausen , conventional theoretical assumptions are drawn from development communications research and are challenged on the grounds that as theoretical concepts they are inadequate guides to the selection of data and the resolution of development problems.

The first conceptual fallacy results from the regular practice of choosing operational examples and analogies from the experiences of developed rather than underdeveloped countries. This is especially evident in terms of a bias favoring technology especially U.

The second fallacy results from the use of inappropriate and frequently untested theoretical models within communication research causing a distorted view of the role of communication in relation to social and behavioral systems.

The first issue is argued by presenting a review of empirical studies which show that communication processes and the adoption of new technology does not go on apart from the factors which define the behavior of the social, economic and political system.

Correlational analyses are of little value in explaining communication processes, or in establishing their role in relation to development. The second issue is addressed by suggesting that communication is to be viewed as part of a social interaction theory in which communication is treated as a process which unveils and transforms reality in the exchange of information among persons.

Communication can be defined as a process of accumulating and integrating intelligence. This reformulation shifts the research focus from questions of how communication functions to change persons senders or receivers , to how it functions to change and transform ideas. Concepts, ideas, interests and positions can then be used as the primary units of analysis.

The practice of development communication began in the s, but widespread application came about after World War II. The advent of communication sciences in the s included recognition of the field as an academic discipline, led by Daniel Lerner , Wilbur Schramm and Everett Rogers.

Both Childers and Quebral stressed that DC includes all means of communication, ranging from mass media from people to people. According to Quebral , the most important feature of Philippines-style development communications is that the government is the "chief designer and administrator of the master development plan wherein, development communication, in this system then is purposive, persuasive, goal-directed, audience-oriented, and interventionist by nature". Various schools of development communication arose in response to challenges and opportunities in individual countries.

Manyozo broke the field into six schools. The "Bretton Woods" school was originally dominant in international literature. While not per se an academic school, the Church has been conducting "development communication" for many decades. The Catholic Church 's social teachings and moral norms parallel those of social development.

Rerum novarum On the New Things , for example, an encyclical written in by Pope Leo XIII critiqued social ills and promoted "the Catholic doctrine on work, the right to property , the principle of collaboration instead of class struggle as the fundamental means for social change, the rights of the weak, the dignity of the poor and the obligations of the rich, the perfecting of justice through charity, on the right to form professional associations" [17] In , Pope John XXIII , writing on the topic "Christianity and Social Progress", produced an encyclical entitled Mater et magistra Mother and Teacher , which taught that the "Church is called in truth, justice and love to cooperate in building with all men and women an authentic communion.

In this way, economic growth will not be limited to satisfying men's needs, but it will also promote their dignity". In it the Pope underscored the importance of justice, peace, and development by declaring that "development is the new name of peace". Addressing development workers, he said, "genuine progress does not consist in wealth sought for personal comfort or for its own sake; rather it consists in an economic order designed for the welfare of the human person, where the daily bread that each man receives reflects the glow of brotherly love and the helping hand of God".

Pope John VI wrote that the Church's very nature was missionary Lumen gentium — Light of the Nations , and its deepest identity Evangelii nuntiandi — Sharing the Gospel [20] embracing the entire life of the Church Redemptoris missio — Mission of the Redeemer. The importance of engagement for social transformation and development is also asserted in the Catechism of the Catholic Church, which states that, "as far as possible citizens should take an active part in public life; the manner of this participation may vary from one country or culture to another Moreover, Gaudium et spes Joy and Hope , commonly referred to as the Magna Carta of the Catholic Church's teaching on human dignity, states, "to satisfy the demands of justice and equity, strenuous efforts must be made, without disregarding the rights of persons or the natural qualities of each country, to remove as quickly as possible the immense economic inequalities which now exist and in many cases are growing and which are connected with individual and social discrimination".

The involvement of many organizations and individual members of the Catholic Church in highlighting the plight of the needy and reaching out to the disadvantaged through works in education, health, livelihood projects, among others, serves as a concrete example of a Church that communicates a transformative and life-changing message. The Church advocates "establishing new relationships in human society, under the mastery and guidance of truth, justice, charity and freedom—relations between individual citizens, between citizens and their respective States, between States, and finally between individuals, families, intermediate associations and States on the one hand, and the world community on the other".

The Bretton Woods school of development communication paralleled the economic strategies outlined in the Marshall Plan , the Bretton Woods system and of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund in Due to his pioneering influence, Rogers was referred to as "one of the founding fathers of development communication.

This approach to development communication was criticized by Latin American researchers such as Luis Ramiro Beltan and Alfonso Gumucio Dagron, because it emphasized problems in the developing nation rather than its unequal relation with developed countries. They claimed that it proposed industrial capitalism as a universal solution and that many projects failed to address obstacles such as lack of access to land, agricultural credits, and fair market prices.

Failed projects in the s led to revisions. The Latin American school of development communication predates the Bretton Woods school, emerging in the s with the efforts of Colombia's Radio Sutatenza and Bolivia's Radios Mineras. They pioneered participatory and educational approaches to empowering the marginalised. In effect, they served as the earliest models for participatory broadcasting efforts around the world. In the s Paolo Freire 's theories of critical pedagogy and Miguel Sabido's enter-educate method became important elements of the Latin American development communication school.

In the s, technological advances facilitated social change and development: new media outlets emerged, cable TV reached more regions, and the growth of local communication firms paralleled the growth of major media corporations. Organized development communication in India began with rural radio broadcasts in the s. Broadcasts adopted indigenous languages to reach larger audiences. Organized efforts in India started with community development projects in the s.

The government, guided by socialist ideals and politicians, started many development programs. Field publicity was employed for person-to-person communication. The radio played an important role in reaching the masses because literacy was low. Educational institutions — especially agricultural universities, through their extension networks — and international organizations under the United Nations umbrella experimented with development communication. Non-governmental organizations NGOs relied on close inter-personal relations among communicators.

Communication from the government was more generic and unidirectional. So-called Public Information Campaigns were government-sponsored public fairs in remote areas that presented entertainment along with information on social and developmental schemes. Villagers engaged in competitions to attract attendees.

Public and private organizations sponsored stalls in the main exhibition area. Some state governments employed this model. Community radio was used in rural India.

NGOs and educational institutions created local stations to broadcast information, advisories and messages on development. Local participation was encouraged. Community radio provided a platform for villagers to publicize local issues, offering the potential to elicit action from local officials. The widespread adoption of mobile telephony in India created new channels for reaching the masses. The African school of development communication sprang from the continent's post-colonial and communist movements in the late s and early s.

Anglophone Africa employed radio and theatre for community education, adult literacy, health and agricultural education Kamlongera, , Mlama, In , the FAO project "Communication for Development in Southern Africa" was a pioneer in supporting and enhancing development projects and programs through the use of participatory communication. The FAO project, placed under SADC, developed an innovative methodology known as Participatory Rural Communication Appraisal PRCA , which combined participatory tools and techniques with a strong communication focus needed to enhance projects results and sustainability.

The radio maintained a strong presence in research and practice into the 21st century. Radio was especially important in rural areas, as the work of the non-governmental organization Farm Radio International and its members across sub-Saharan Africa demonstrated. Knowledge exchange between development partners such as agricultural scientists and farmers were mediated through rural radio Hambly Odame, In her paper, Quebral argued that development communication had become a science, requiring the tasks associated with communicating development-oriented issues be based on scientific inquiry.

At the time the field was limited to agricultural and rural development. At the time the term 'development support communication' was used in UNDP programmes under Erskine Childers, with coauthor and wife, Malicca Vajrathron. In , in the Institute of Development Communication's faculty papers series, Alexander Flor proposed expanding the definition of development communication to include the perspective of cybernetics and general systems theory :.

If information counters entropy and societal breakdown is a type of entropy, then there must be a specific type of information that counters societal entropy. The exchange of such information — be it at the individual, group, or societal level — is called development communication.

The center's vision is to be a leading centre of excellence in development training, communication and consultancy services. As an extension arm of Kasetsart University its international service mission includes building and maintaining quality services to support organizations in their efforts for sustainable development in social and economic sectors. The evolution of the participatory development communication school involved collaboration between First World and Third World development communication organizations.

The World Bank actively promotes this field through its Development Communication division and published the Development Communication Sourcebook in , a resource addressing the history, concepts and practical applications of this discipline. The difference seems to be a matter of semantics and not ideology since the end goals of these global organizations are almost identical to each other.

Communication for Development C4D goes beyond providing information. It involves understanding people, their beliefs and values, the social and cultural norms that shape their lives. It includes engaging communities and listening to adults and children as they identify problems, propose solutions and act upon them.

Communication for development is seen as a two-way process for sharing ideas and knowledge using a range of communication tools and approaches that empower individuals and communities to take actions to improve their lives. World Bank defines Development Communication "as an interdisciplinary field, is based on empirical research that helps to build consensus while it facilitates the sharing of knowledge to achieve a positive change in the development initiative.

It is not only about effective dissemination of information but also about using empirical research and two-way communications among stakeholders". Development Communication division, the World Bank. One of the first examples of development communication was Farm Radio Forums in Canada.

From to farmers met weekly to listen to radio programs, supplemented by printed materials and prepared questions to encourage discussion.

Mass Communication- Nature and scope

While we are building a new and improved webshop, please click below to purchase this content via our partner CCC and their Rightfind service. You will need to register with a RightFind account to finalise the purchase. Gabriel Tarde ranks as one of the most outstanding sociologists of nineteenth-century France, though not as well known by English readers as his peers Comte and Durkheim. Unlike the mass society theorists that followed in his wake, Tarde integrated his discussions of societal change at the macrosocietal and individual levels, anticipating later twentieth-century thinkers who fused the studies of mass communications and public opinion research. Terry N. EN English Deutsch. Your documents are now available to view.

Nature and Scope of Communication Communication is the process of exchanging information, usually through a common system of symbols. Origin- Latin.


Communication is as old as human civilization. The common need for protection led to group life. As group life developed, forms of communication also developed.

Mass Communication is a process in which a person, a group of people, or an organization sends a message through a channel of communication to a large group of anonymous and heterogeneous people and organizations. Channels of communication include broadcast Television, Radio, Social media and print. Sydney Head suggests that the term Mass Communication must imply at least five things:. Communication has existed since the beginning of human beings, but it was not until the 20th century that people began to study the process.

Communication: Meaning, Purpose, Importance and Principles

Nature and Scope of Communication

Development communication refers to the use of communication to facilitate social development. Development communication has not been labeled as the "Fifth Theory of the Press", with "social transformation and development", and "the fulfillment of basic needs" as its primary purposes. Their three main ideas are: purposive, value-laden, and pragmatic. Quebral expanded the definition, calling it "the art and science of human communication applied to the speedy transformation of a country and the mass of its people from poverty to a dynamic state of economic growth that makes possible greater social equality and the larger fulfillment of the human potential". Nora Cruz-Quebral, Ph. Dioscoro L.

Communication is the method of transferring information between people or group for mutual understanding and confidence. It involves the flow of information from the sender to the receiver. The receiver must understand the meaning and message of information. It can also be taken as the process of sharing ideas, thoughts, opinions and views from one person to another person. A manager should communicate effectively to his subordinates to implement the plans and policies. The communication is one of the important function of management.

Definitions Communication is the process of exchanging information, usually through a common system of symbols. It takes a wide variety of forms – from two.

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Wherever there is human activity, there is management. Without efficient management, the objectives of the company can not be achieved. The most important goal of all management activities is to accomplish the objectives of an enterprise. The goals should be realistic and attainable. The success of management is measured by the extent to which the established goals one achieved.

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Development communication

Read this article to learn about the meaning, purpose, importance and principles of communication. The exchange of information or passing of information, ideas or thought from one person to the other or from one end to the other is communication. More specifically, it is the process by which meanings are perceived and understandings are reached among human beings.

Она отвернулась. Дэвид терпеливо ждал. - Сьюзан Флетчер, я люблю. Будьте моей женой.

Энсея Танкадо отдали в приемную семью. Каждую ночь юный Танкадо смотрел на свои скрюченные пальцы, вцепившиеся в куклу Дарума note 1и клялся, что отомстит - отомстит стране, которая лишила его матери, а отца заставила бросить его на произвол судьбы. Не знал он только одного - что в его планы вмешается судьба. В феврале того года, когда Энсею исполнилось двенадцать, его приемным родителям позвонили из токийской фирмы, производящей компьютеры, и предложили их сыну-калеке принять участие в испытаниях новой клавиатуры, которую фирма сконструировала для детей с физическими недостатками.

 Коммандер. Молчание. Тогда она осторожно двинулась в направлении Третьего узла.

 Чед, уверяю тебя, в шифровалке творится что-то непонятное. Не знаю, почему Фонтейн прикидывается идиотом, но ТРАНСТЕКСТ в опасности. Там происходит что-то очень серьезное. - Мидж.  - Он постарался ее успокоить, входя вслед за ней в комнату заседаний к закрытому жалюзи окну.

Я не собираюсь оплачивать твое пристрастие к наркотикам, если речь идет об. - Я хочу вернуться домой, - сказала блондинка.  - Не поможете. - Опоздала на самолет. Она кивнула.

Она села за терминал Джаббы и перепечатала все группы, а закончив, подбежала к Сьюзан. Все посмотрели на экран. PFEE SESN RETM MFHA IRWE ENET SHAS DCNS IIAA IEER OOIG MEEN NRMA BRNK FBLE LODI Улыбалась одна только Сьюзан. - Нечто знакомое, - сказала.  - Блоки из четырех знаков, ну прямо ЭНИГМА.

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