File Name: general diseases and their treatment .zip
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Common Eye Disorders and Diseases
As a parent, it is important to be aware of the most up-to-date treatment guidelines so you can be sure your child is getting the best care possible. The following information from the American Academy of Pediatrics AAP lists some of the most common childhood illnesses and their approved treatments.
The treatments discussed here are based on scientific evidence and best practices. However, there may be reasons why your pediatrician has different recommendations for your child, especially if your child has an ongoing medical condition or allergy. Your pediatrician will discuss any variations in treatment with you.
If you have any questions about appropriate care for your child, please discuss them with your pediatrician. Sore throats are common in children and can be painful. However, a sore throat that is caused by a virus does not need antibiotics. In those cases, no specific medicine is required, and your child should get better in seven to ten days.
In other cases, a sore throat could be caused by an infection called streptococcal strep throat. Strep cannot be accurately diagnosed by simply looking at the throat. A lab test or in-office rapid strep test, which includes a quick swab of the throat, is necessary to confirm the diagnosis of strep. If positive for strep, your pediatrician will prescribe an antibiotic.
It's very important that your child take the antibiotic for the full course, as prescribed, even if the symptoms get better or go away. Steroid medicines such as prednisone are not an appropriate treatment for most cases of sore throat.
Babies and toddlers rarely get it strep throat , but they are more likely to become infected by streptococcus bacteria if they are in child care or if an older sibling has the illness. Although strep spreads mainly through coughs and sneezes, your child can also get it by touching a toy that an infected child has played with.
Ear pain is common in children and can have many causes —including ear infection otitis media , swimmer's ear infection of the skin in the ear canal , pressure from a cold or sinus infection, teeth pain radiating up the jaw to the ear, and others. To tell the difference, your pediatrician will need to examine your child's ear. In fact, an in-office exam is still the best way for your pediatrician to make an accurate diagnosis.
If your child's ear pain is accompanied by a high fever, involves both ears, or if your child has other signs of illness, your pediatrician may decide that an antibiotic is the best treatment. Amoxicillin is the preferred antibiotic for middle ear infections —except when there is an allergy to penicillin or chronic or recurrent infections. Many true ear infections are caused by viruses and do not require antibiotics. If your pediatrician suspects your child's ear infection may be from a virus, he or she will talk with you about the best ways to help relieve your child's ear pain until the virus runs its course.
A UTI can be found in children from infancy through the teen years and into adulthood. Symptoms of a UTI include pain or burning during urination, the need to urinate frequently or urgently, bedwetting or accidents by a child who knows to use the toilet, abdominal pain, or side or back pain. Your child's doctor will need a urine sample to test for a UTI before determining treatment. Your doctor may adjust the treatment depending on which bacteria is found in your child's urine.
See Detecting Urinary Tract Infections. In most children with skin infections, a skin test culture or swab may be needed to determine the most-appropriate treatment. Tell your doctor if your child has a history of MRSA, staph infection, or other resistant bacteria or if he or she has been exposed to other family members or contacts with resistant bacteria.
Chronic bronchitis is an infection of the larger, more central airways in the lungs and is more often seen in adults. Often the word "bronchitis" is used to describe a chest virus and does not require antibiotics. See Bronchitis CDC. Bronchiolitis is common in infants and young children during the cold and flu season. Your doctor may hear "wheezing" when your child breathes. Bronchiolitis is most often caused by a virus, which does not require antibiotics.
Instead, most treatment recommendations are geared toward making your child comfortable with close monitoring for any difficulty in breathing, eating, or signs of dehydration. Medicines used for patients with asthma such as albuterol or steroids are not recommended for most infants and young children with bronchiolitis.
Children who were born prematurely or have underlying health problems may need different treatment plans. See Bronchiolitis and Treating Bronchiolitis in Infants. The best medicines for pain relief for children are acetaminophen or ibuprofen. Talk to your pediatrician about how much to give your child, as it should be based on your child's weight. Narcotic pain medications are not appropriate for children with common injuries or complaints such as sprained ankle, ear pain, or sore throats.
Codeine should never be used for children as it's been associated with severe respiratory problems and even death in children. Colds are caused by viruses in the upper respiratory tract. Many young children—especially those in child care—can get 6 to 8 colds per year. Symptoms of a cold including runny nose, congestion, and cough may last for up to ten days. Green mucus in the nose does not automatically mean that antibiotics are needed; common colds never need antibiotics.
However, if a sinus infection is suspected, your doctor will carefully decide whether antibiotics are the best choice based on your child's symptoms and a physical exam. Sinusitis is suspected when cold-like symptoms such as nasal discharge, daytime cough, or both last over ten days without improvement.
Antibiotics may be needed if this condition is accompanied by thick yellow nasal discharge and a fever for at least 3 or 4 days in a row. Cough medicine is not recommended for children 4 years of age and younger, or for children 4 to 6 years of age unless advised by your doctor.
Studies have consistently shown that cough medicines do not work in the 4-years-and-younger age group and have the potential for serious side effects. Cough medicines with narcotics—such as codeine—should not be used in children. Call your pediatrician if your child's illness appears to change, becomes worse, does not go away after a few days, or if you are worried about any new symptoms that develop.
If your child's illness has worsened, or if he or she develops complications, your pediatrician may recommend a new treatment. If you have any questions or concerns about appropriate care for your child, please discuss them with your pediatrician. While it may be tempting to go to a nearby after-hours clinic if your child is ill, your pediatrician knows your child best, has your child's medical records, and is the best place to start for advice.
Ask your pediatrician how he or she would like to be contact when the office is closed. In fact, the AAP does not recommend retail-based clinics, telehealth services outside of the medical home, or acute care services without pediatric expertise for children younger than 2 years.
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Page Content. Sore Throat Sore throats are common in children and can be painful. Ear Pain Ear pain is common in children and can have many causes —including ear infection otitis media , swimmer's ear infection of the skin in the ear canal , pressure from a cold or sinus infection, teeth pain radiating up the jaw to the ear, and others.
Skin Infection In most children with skin infections, a skin test culture or swab may be needed to determine the most-appropriate treatment. Bronchitis Chronic bronchitis is an infection of the larger, more central airways in the lungs and is more often seen in adults. Bronchiolitis Bronchiolitis is common in infants and young children during the cold and flu season.
Pain The best medicines for pain relief for children are acetaminophen or ibuprofen. Common Cold Colds are caused by viruses in the upper respiratory tract. Cough Coughs are usually caused by viruses and do not often require antibiotics.
If Symptoms Change: Occasionally, mild infections—viral or bacterial—can develop into more serious infections. Have More Questions? The information contained on this Web site should not be used as a substitute for the medical care and advice of your pediatrician. There may be variations in treatment that your pediatrician may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances. Follow Us. Back to Top.
Chronic Conditions. Common Surgical Procedures. Developmental Disabilities. Emotional Problems.
This article is only available in the PDF format. Download the PDF to view the article, as well as its associated figures and tables. This book is not an ordinary work on medicine, but occupies a field which has been largely neglected. Since symptoms, etiology, diagnosis, etc. The work under consideration aims to supply this defect and it is, therefore, a supplement to other works on medicine. It deals entirely with the treatment of diseases and of symptoms, and in general this is done clearly and fully. The amount of space devoted to the different diseases, or classes of disease, seems to be judiciously arranged, for instance, two chapters are given to the treatment of tuberculosis and about the same amount of space to the specific infectious diseases.
A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure or function of all or part of an organism, and that is not due to any immediate external injury. A disease may be caused by external factors such as pathogens or by internal dysfunctions. For example, internal dysfunctions of the immune system can produce a variety of different diseases, including various forms of immunodeficiency , hypersensitivity , allergies and autoimmune disorders. In humans, disease is often used more broadly to refer to any condition that causes pain , dysfunction , distress , social problems , or death to the person afflicted, or similar problems for those in contact with the person. In this broader sense, it sometimes includes injuries , disabilities , disorders , syndromes , infections , isolated symptoms , deviant behaviors , and atypical variations of structure and function, while in other contexts and for other purposes these may be considered distinguishable categories. Diseases can affect people not only physically, but also mentally, as contracting and living with a disease can alter the affected person's perspective on life. Death due to disease is called death by natural causes.
All About Common Skin Disorders
Jump to navigation. People with allergies have especially sensitive immune systems that react when they contact allergens. Because there are so many possible causes, the symptoms of allergies vary widely. Airborne allergens, like pollen and pet dander, are likely to cause:.
Learn about acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, a cancer of the white blood cells. Around three out of four childhood leukaemia cases are acute lymphoblastic. Learn more about acute myeloid leukaemia, an overproduction of myeloid white blood cells. Information about acute myeloid leukaemia, a type of blood cancer that can affect young people. Learn about the symptoms and treatments of generalised anxiety disorder GAD.
Anhrax, a highly infectious and fatal disease of cattle, is caused by a relatively large spore-forming rectangular shaped bacterium called Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax causes acute mortality in ruminants. The bacteria produce extremely potent toxins which are responsible for the ill effects, causing a high mortality rate. Signs of the illness usually appear 3 to 7 days after the spores are swallowed or inhaled.
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Click here to see the anatomy the eye and how the eyes work. Refractive errors are the most frequent eye problems in the United States. Refractive errors include myopia near-sightedness , hyperopia farsightedness , astigmatism distorted vision at all distances , and presbyopia that occurs between age 40—50 years loss of the ability to focus up close, inability to read letters of the phone book, need to hold newspaper farther away to see clearly can be corrected by eyeglasses, contact lenses, or in some cases surgery.
There are many common and important diseases which can affect the respiratory system air passages, lungs, air sacs of poultry see Table 1.