File Name: is male and female equal in all aspects .zip
Gender equality refers to the right of women and men to have the same opportunities for the achievement of important goals in society such as education, employment and income and to contribute to political, social, and cultural development at all levels. Promising equal pay, equal opportunity, as well as freedom from discrimination and harassment in the workplace to all persons, whether they are men, women, married, single or pregnant, gender equality in essence promotes the equitable and respectable advancement of men and women together. As such it is considered a highly desirable objective for organizations and governments around the world that are seeking to establish and consolidate socio-economic structures that will facilitate development.
Gender equality , also known as sexual equality or equality of the sexes , is the state of equal ease of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender, including economic participation and decision-making; and the state of valuing different behaviors, aspirations and needs equally, regardless of gender.
Gender equality , also known as sexual equality or equality of the sexes , is the state of equal ease of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender, including economic participation and decision-making; and the state of valuing different behaviors, aspirations and needs equally, regardless of gender. Gender equality is the goal, while gender neutrality and gender equity are practices and ways of thinking that help in achieving the goal.
Gender parity, which is used to measure gender balance in a given situation, can aid in achieving gender equality but is not the goal in and of itself. Gender equality is more than equal representation, it is strongly tied to women's rights , and often requires policy changes. As of [update] , the global movement for gender equality has not incorporated the proposition of genders besides women and men , or gender identities outside of the gender binary.
UNICEF says gender equality "means that women and men, and girls and boys, enjoy the same rights, resources, opportunities and protections. It does not require that girls and boys, or women and men, be the same, or that they be treated exactly alike. On a global scale, achieving gender equality also requires eliminating harmful practices against women and girls, including sex trafficking , femicide , wartime sexual violence , gender wage gap,  and other oppression tactics.
UNFPA stated that, "despite many international agreements affirming their human rights, women are still much more likely than men to be poor and illiterate. They have less access to property ownership, credit, training and employment. They are far less likely than men to be politically active and far more likely to be victims of domestic violence. As of , gender equality is the fifth of seventeen sustainable development goals SDG 5 of the United Nations.
Christine de Pizan , an early advocate for gender equality, states in her book The Book of the City of Ladies that the oppression of women is founded on irrational prejudice, pointing out numerous advances in society probably created by women. The Shakers , an evangelical group, which practiced segregation of the sexes and strict celibacy , were early practitioners of gender equality.
They branched off from a Quaker community in the north-west of England before emigrating to America in In America, the head of the Shakers' central ministry in , Joseph Meacham, had a revelation that the sexes should be equal. He then brought Lucy Wright into the ministry as his female counterpart, and together they restructured the society to balance the rights of the sexes. Meacham and Wright established leadership teams where each elder, who dealt with the men's spiritual welfare, was partnered with an eldress, who did the same for women.
Each deacon was partnered with a deaconess. Men had oversight of men; women had oversight of women. Women lived with women; men lived with men. In Shaker society, a woman did not have to be controlled or owned by any man.
After Meacham's death in , Wright became the head of the Shaker ministry until her death in Shakers maintained the same pattern of gender-balanced leadership for more than years.
They also promoted equality by working together with other women's rights advocates. In , Shaker Elder Frederick Evans stated their beliefs forcefully, writing that Shakers were "the first to disenthrall woman from the condition of vassalage to which all other religious systems more or less consign her, and to secure to her those just and equal rights with man that, by her similarity to him in organization and faculties, both God and nature would seem to demand".
A visitor to the Shakers wrote in The Shakers were more than a radical religious sect on the fringes of American society; they put equality of the sexes into practice. It has been argued that they demonstrated that gender equality was achievable and how to achieve it.
In wider society, the movement towards gender equality began with the suffrage movement in Western cultures in the lateth century, which sought to allow women to vote and hold elected office. This period also witnessed significant changes to women's property rights , particularly in relation to their marital status.
See for example, Married Women's Property Act Since World War II , the women's liberation movement and feminism have created a general movement towards recognition of women's rights.
The United Nations and other international agencies have adopted several conventions which promote gender equality. These conventions have not been uniformly adopted by all countries, and include:. Such legislation and affirmative action policies have been critical to bringing changes in societal attitudes.
Similarly, men are increasingly working in occupations which in previous generations had been considered women's work , such as nursing , cleaning and child care. In domestic situations, the role of Parenting or child rearing is more commonly shared or not as widely considered to be an exclusively female role, so that women may be free to pursue a career after childbirth.
Another manifestation of the change in social attitudes is the non-automatic taking by a woman of her husband's surname on marriage. A highly contentious issue relating to gender equality is the role of women in religiously orientated societies. This view may be in opposition to the views and goals of gender equality. In addition, there are also non-Western countries of low religiosity where the contention surrounding gender equality remains.
In China, a cultural preference for a male child has resulted in a shortfall of women in the population. The feminist movement in Japan has made many strides which resulted in the Gender Equality Bureau , but Japan still remains low in gender equality compared to other industrialized nations.
The notion of gender equality, and of its degree of achievement in a certain country, is very complex because there are countries that have a history of a high level of gender equality in certain areas of life but not in other areas.
Laurel Weldon "gender policy is not one issue but many" and: . When Costa Rica has a better maternity leave than the United States , and Latin American countries are quicker to adopt policies addressing violence against women than the Nordic countries , one at least ought to consider the possibility that fresh ways of grouping states would further the study of gender politics. Not all beliefs relating to gender equality have been popularly adopted.
For example, topfreedom , the right to be bare breasted in public, frequently applies only to males and has remained a marginal issue. Breastfeeding in public is now more commonly tolerated, especially in semi-private places such as restaurants. It is the vision that men and women should be treated equally in social , economic and all other aspects of society, and to not be discriminated against on the basis of their gender. Despite economic struggles in developing countries, the United Nations is still trying to promote gender equality, as well as help create a sustainable living environment is all its nations.
Their goals also include giving women who work certain full-time jobs equal pay to the men with the same job. There has been criticism from some feminists towards the political discourse and policies employed in order to achieve the above items of "progress" in gender equality, with critics arguing that these gender equality strategies are superficial, in that they do not seek to challenge social structures of male domination, and only aim to improve the situation of women within the societal framework of subordination of women to men,  and that official public policies such as state policies or international bodies policies are questionable, as they are applied in a patriarchal context, and are directly or indirectly controlled by agents of a system which is for the most part male.
A further criticism is that a focus on the situation of women in non-Western countries, while often ignoring the issues that exist in the West, is a form of imperialism and of reinforcing Western moral superiority; and a way of "othering" of domestic violence, by presenting it as something specific to outsiders — the "violent others" — and not to the allegedly progressive Western cultures.
Controversy regarding Western cultural influence in the world is not new; in the late s, when the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was being drafted, the American Anthropological Association warned that the document would be defining universal rights from a Western perspective which could be detrimental to non-Western countries, and further argued that the West's history of colonialism and forceful interference with other societies made them a problematic moral representative for universal global standards.
There has been criticism that international law , international courts , and universal gender neutral concepts of human rights are at best silent on many of the issues important to women and at worst male centered; considering the male person to be the default.
Gender equality is part of the national curriculum in Great Britain and many other European countries. By presidential decree, the Republic of Kazakhstan created a Strategy for Gender Equality — to chart the subsequent decade of gender equality efforts. A large and growing body of research has shown how gender inequality undermines health and development. To overcome gender inequality the United Nations Population Fund states that, "Women's empowerment and gender equality requires strategic interventions at all levels of programming and policy-making.
These levels include reproductive health, economic empowerment, educational empowerment and political empowerment. UNFPA says that "research has also demonstrated how working with men and boys as well as women and girls to promote gender equality contributes to achieving health and development outcomes. Social constructs of gender that is, cultural ideals of socially acceptable masculinity and femininity often have a negative effect on health. The World Health Organization cites the example of women not being allowed to travel alone outside the home to go to the hospital , and women being prevented by cultural norms to ask their husbands to use a condom, in cultures which simultaneously encourage male promiscuity, as social norms that harm women's health.
Teenage boys suffering accidents due to social expectations of impressing their peers through risk taking , and men dying at much higher rate from lung cancer due to smoking , in cultures which link smoking to masculinity, are cited by the WHO as examples of gender norms negatively affecting men's health. Certain cultural practices, such as female genital mutilation FGM , negatively affect women's health. It is rooted in inequality between the sexes, and constitutes a form of discrimination against women.
According to the World Health Organization, gender equality can improve men's health. The study shows that traditional notions of masculinity have a big impact on men's health. Among European men, non-communicable diseases , such as cancer , cardiovascular diseases , respiratory illnesses , and diabetes , account for the vast majority of deaths of men aged 30—59 in Europe which are often linked to unhealthy diets, stress, substance abuse , and other habits, which the report connects to behaviors often stereotypically seen as masculine behaviors like heavy drinking and smoking.
Traditional gender stereotypes that keep men in the role of breadwinner and systematic discrimination preventing women from equally contributing to their households and participating in the workforce can put additional stress on men, increasing their risk of health issues and men bolstered by cultural norms , tend to take more risks and engage in interpersonal violence more often than women, which could result in fatal injuries.
Violence against women VAW is a technical term used to collectively refer to violent acts that are primarily or exclusively committed against women. This includes both violence committed inside marriage domestic violence as well as violence related to marriage customs and traditions such as dowry , bride price , forced marriage and child marriage. According to some theories, violence against women is often caused by the acceptance of violence by various cultural groups as a means of conflict resolution within intimate relationships.
Studies on Intimate partner violence victimization among ethnic minorities in the United Studies have consistently revealed that immigrants are a high-risk group for intimate violence.
In some parts of the world, various forms of violence against women are tolerated and accepted as parts of everyday life. In most countries, it is only in more recent decades that domestic violence against women has received significant legal attention.
The Istanbul Convention acknowledges the long tradition of European countries of ignoring this form of violence. In some cultures, acts of violence against women are seen as crimes against the male 'owners' of the woman, such as husband, father or male relatives, rather the woman herself. This leads to practices where men inflict violence upon women in order to get revenge on male members of the women's family. Richard A. Posner writes that "Traditionally, rape was the offense of depriving a father or husband of a valuable asset — his wife's chastity or his daughter's virginity".
As a result, victims of rape may face violence, in extreme cases even honor killings, at the hands of their family members. The World Health Organization WHO has developed a typology of violence against women based on their cultural life cycles.
Significant progress towards the protection of women from violence has been made on international level as a product of collective effort of lobbying by many women's rights movements; international organizations to civil society groups. As a result, worldwide governments and international as well as civil society organizations actively work to combat violence against women through a variety of programs.
Among the major achievements of the women's rights movements against violence on girls and women, the landmark accomplishments are the " Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women " that implies "political will towards addressing VAW " and the legal binding agreement, "the Convention on Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women CEDAW ". A typology similar to the WHO's from an article on violence against women published in the academic journal The Lancet shows the different types of violence perpetrated against women according to what time period in a women's life the violence takes place.
One important point to note is that more of the types of violence inflicted on women are perpetrated by someone the woman knows, either a family member or intimate partner, rather than a stranger. The Gender Equality Commission of the Council of Europe identifies nine forms of violence against women based on subject and context rather than life cycle or time period:  . Killings of transgender individuals, especially transgender women, continue to rise yearly. In , United States data showed that transgender people are likely to experience a broad range of violence in the entirety of their lifetime.
Violence against trans women in Puerto Rico started to make headlines after being treated as "An Invisible Problem" decades before. It was reported at the 58th Convention of the Puerto Rican Association that many transgender women face institutional, emotional, and structural obstacles. Most trans women don't have access to health care for STD prevention and are not educated on violence prevention, mental health, and social services that could benefit them.
Trans women in the United States have encountered the subject of anti-trans stigma, which includes criminalization, dehumanization, and violence against those who identify as transgender. From a societal stand point, a trans person can be victim to the stigma due to lack of family support, issues with health care and social services, police brutality , discrimination in the work place, cultural marginalisation, poverty, sexual assault, assault, bullying, and mental trauma.
The Human Rights Campaign tracked over cases [ clarification needed ] that ended in fatality against transgender people in the US from to , of which eighty percent included a trans woman of color.
Frequently asked questions about gender equality
The term gender refers to the economic, social and cultural attributes and opportunities associated with being male or female. In most societies, being a man or a woman is not simply a matter of different biological and physical characteristics. Men and women face different expectations about how they should dress, behave or work. Relations between men and women, whether in the family, the workplace or the public sphere, also reflect understandings of the talents, characteristics and behaviour appropriate to women and to men. Gender thus differs from sex in that it is social and cultural in nature rather than biological. Gender attributes and characteristics, encompassing, inter alia, the roles that men and women play and the expectations placed upon them, vary widely among societies and change over time. But the fact that gender attributes are socially constructed means that they are also amenable to change in ways that can make a society more just and equitable.
When men leave their villages for better-paid jobs in cities or abroad, women get saddled with the farm work as well as their domestic chores. When newly rich men dabble in vice, village girls get dragooned into prostitution and middle-aged matrons wind up divorced. Yet when fast-changing lifestyles provoke a traditionalist backlash, patriarchy reasserts itself with a vengeance. When inflation bids up dowries and social pressures depress birth rates, girl babies get aborted or murdered in their cribs to make way for male heirs. Many of these changes have been positive.
Рано или поздно я отсюда смоюсь. - Я этого не переживу. В этот момент Сьюзан поймала себя на том, что готова взвалить на Хейла вину за все свои неприятности. За Цифровую крепость, волнения из-за Дэвида, зато, что не поехала в Смоуки-Маунтинс, - хотя он был ко всему этому не причастен. Единственная его вина заключалась в том, что она испытывала к нему неприязнь. Сьюзан важно было ощущать свое старшинство. В ее обязанности в качестве главного криптографа входило поддерживать в шифровалке мирную атмосферу - воспитывать .
Gender equality means an equal visibility, empowerment, responsibility and par- ticipation of women and men in all spheres of public and private life. It also means Women's economic independence is a crucial aspect for the realisation of.
Ей вспомнились мечты коммандера: черный ход в Цифровую крепость и величайший переворот в разведке, который он должен был вызвать. Она подумала о вирусе в главном банке данных, о его распавшемся браке, вспомнила этот странный кивок головы, которым он ее проводил, и, покачнувшись, ухватилась за перила. Коммандер. Нет.
FROM: CHALECRYPTO. NSA. GOV Гнев захлестнул ее, но она сдержалась и спокойно стерла сообщение.
Они уже пытались сделать то же самое в Мулен Руж, в отеле Брауне пэлис и в Голфиньо в Лагосе. Но что попало на газетную полосу. Правда.
Прямо перед ним, откинувшись на груду старых подушек, лежал пожилой человек с ярко-белой гипсовой повязкой на правом запястье. ГЛАВА 21 Голос американца, звонившего Нуматаке по прямой линии, казался взволнованным: - Мистер Нуматака, в моем распоряжении не больше минуты. - Хорошо. Полагаю, вы получили обе копии ключа. - Вышла небольшая заминка, - сказал американец. - Это невозможно! - рявкнул Нуматака.
У него случился инфаркт. Я сам. Никакой крови. Никакой пули. Беккер снисходительно покачал головой: - Иногда все выглядит не так, как есть на самом деле. Лицо немца стало белым как полотно. Беккер был доволен .
Хакеры подобны гиенам: это одна большая семья, радостно возвещающая о любой возможности поживиться. Лиланд Фонтейн решил, что с него довольно этого зрелища.