Anatomy And Physiology Of Nervous System Pdf

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The picture you have in your mind of the nervous system probably includes the brain , the nervous tissue contained within the cranium, and the spinal cord , the extension of nervous tissue within the vertebral column. The brain is contained within the cranial cavity of the skull, and the spinal cord is contained within the vertebral canal of the vertebral column. The peripheral nervous system is so named because it is in the periphery—meaning beyond the brain and spinal cord.

In addition to the anatomical divisions listed above, the nervous system can also be divided on the basis of its functions. The nervous system is involved in receiving information about the environment around us sensory functions, sensation and generating responses to that information motor functions, responses and coordinating the two integration.

Sensation refers to receiving information about the environment, either what is happening outside ie: heat from the sun or inside the body ie: heat from muscle activity.

Voluntary responses are governed by the somatic nervous system and involuntary responses are governed by the autonomic nervous system, which are discussed in the next section.

Stimuli that are received by sensory structures are communicated to the nervous system where that information is processed. This is called integration see Figure In the CNS, stimuli are compared with, or integrated with, other stimuli, memories of previous stimuli, or the state of a person at a particular time. This leads to the specific response that will be generated. The nervous system can be separated into divisions on the basis of anatomy and physiology.

The anatomical divisions are the central and peripheral nervous systems. The CNS is the brain and spinal cord. The PNS is everything else and includes afferent and efferent branches with further subdivisions for somatic, visceral and autonomic function. Functionally, the nervous system can be divided into those regions that are responsible for sensation, those that are responsible for integration, and those that are responsible for generating responses.

What responses are generated by the nervous system when you run on a treadmill? Include an example of each type of tissue that is under nervous system control. When eating food, what anatomical and functional divisions of the nervous system are involved in the perceptual experience? Skip to content Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe the anatomical structure and basic functions of the nervous system Identify the anatomical and functional divisions of the nervous system List the basic functions of the nervous system.

Chapter Review The nervous system can be separated into divisions on the basis of anatomy and physiology. Review Questions. Critical Thinking Questions 1. The sensation of taste associated with eating is sensed by nerves in the periphery that are involved in sensory and somatic functions. Previous: Next: Share This Book Share on Twitter.

The Central Nervous System

The nervous system is a network of cells called neurons that coordinate actions and transmit signals between different parts of the body. The nervous system is an organ system that coordinates voluntary and involuntary actions and responses by transmitting signals between different parts of our bodies. Central to the functioning of the nervous system is an extensive network of specialized cells called neurons. Neurons feature many thin projecting fibers called axons, which penetrate deep into tissues. They are able to communicate with other cells by chemical or electrical means at synapses. Neuronal function is supported by neuroglia, specialized cells which provide nutrition, mechanical support, and protection.

The nervous system is the master controlling and communicating system of the body. Every thought, action, and emotion reflects its activity. Its signaling device, or means of communicating with body cells, is electrical impulses, which are rapid and specific and cause almost immediate responses. The nervous system does not work alone to regulate and maintain body homeostasis ; the endocrine system is a second important regulating system. We only have one nervous system, but, because of its complexity, it is difficult to consider all of its parts at the same time; so, to simplify its study, we divide it in terms of its structures structural classification or in terms of its activities functional classification. The structural classification, which includes all of the nervous system organs, has two subdivisions- the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. Even though it is complex, nervous tissue is made up of just two principal types of cells- supporting cells and neurons.

The Central Nervous System

The nervous system is a complex network of nerves and nerve cells neurons that carry signals or messages to and from the brain and spinal cord to different parts of the body. It is made up of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system CNS is made up of the brain and spinal cord.

The nervous system is a complex network of nerves and nerve cells neurons that carry signals or messages to and from the brain and spinal cord to different parts of the body. It is made up of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system CNS is made up of the brain and spinal cord.

The brain and the spinal cord are the central nervous system, and they represent the main organs of the nervous system. The spinal cord is a single structure, whereas the adult brain is described in terms of four major regions: the cerebrum, the diencephalon, the brain stem, and the cerebellum. The regulation of homeostasis is governed by a specialized region in the brain. The coordination of reflexes depends on the integration of sensory and motor pathways in the spinal cord.

The central nervous system CNS is the part of the nervous system consisting primarily of the brain and spinal cord. The CNS is so named because the brain integrates the received information and coordinates and influences the activity of all parts of the bodies of bilaterally symmetric animals —i. It consists of a large nerve running from the anterior to the posterior, with the anterior end is enlarged into the brain.

Nervous system , organized group of cells specialized for the conduction of electrochemical stimuli from sensory receptors through a network to the site at which a response occurs. All living organisms are able to detect changes within themselves and in their environments. Changes in the external environment include those of light , temperature , sound , motion, and odour , while changes in the internal environment include those in the position of the head and limbs as well as in the internal organs. Once detected, these internal and external changes must be analyzed and acted upon in order to survive. As life on Earth evolved and the environment became more complex, the survival of organisms depended upon how well they could respond to changes in their surroundings.

The nervous system is a complex network of nerves and nerve cells neurons that carry signals or messages to and from the brain and spinal cord to different parts of the body. It is made up of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system CNS is made up of the brain and spinal cord.

Central nervous system

The nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord, sensory organs, and all of the nerves that connect these organs with the rest of the body.

1 Response
  1. David W.

    Human nervous system , system that conducts stimuli from sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord and conducts impulses back to other parts of the body.

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