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- LiVre Breakthrough on the New Skis: Say Goodbye to the Intermediate Blues Full Free
- Intellectual property rights: An overview and implications in pharmaceutical industry
- Michael Faraday
- You Need an Innovation Strategy
LiVre Breakthrough on the New Skis: Say Goodbye to the Intermediate Blues Full Free
Michael Faraday , born September 22, , Newington , Surrey , England—died August 25, , Hampton Court , Surrey , English physicist and chemist whose many experiments contributed greatly to the understanding of electromagnetism. His mother was a country woman of great calm and wisdom.
At an early age, Faraday began to earn money by delivering newspapers for a book dealer and bookbinder. The lectures inspired Faraday to become a scientist. Faraday, who became one of the greatest scientists of the 19th century, began his career as a chemist. His major contribution, however, was in the field of electricity and magnetism. He was the first to produce an electric current from a magnetic field , invented the first electric motor and dynamo , demonstrated the relation between electricity and chemical bonding , discovered the effect of magnetism on light , and discovered and named diamagnetism , the peculiar behaviour of certain substances in strong magnetic fields.
He provided the experimental, and a good deal of the theoretical, foundation upon which James Clerk Maxwell erected classical electromagnetic field theory.
His father was a blacksmith who had migrated from the north of England earlier in to look for work. His mother was a country woman of great calm and wisdom who supported her son emotionally through a difficult childhood. Faraday was one of four children, all of whom were hard put to get enough to eat, since their father was often ill and incapable of working steadily.
Faraday later recalled being given one loaf of bread that had to last him for a week. The family belonged to a small Christian sect, called Sandemanians , that provided spiritual sustenance to Faraday throughout his life. It was the single most important influence upon him and strongly affected the way in which he approached and interpreted nature.
Faraday received only the rudiments of an education, learning to read, write, and cipher in a church Sunday school. At an early age he began to earn money by delivering newspapers for a book dealer and bookbinder, and at the age of 14 he was apprenticed to the man. Unlike the other apprentices, Faraday took the opportunity to read some of the books brought in for rebinding.
Using old bottles and lumber, he made a crude electrostatic generator and did simple experiments. He also built a weak voltaic pile with which he performed experiments in electrochemistry. Faraday went, sat absorbed with it all, recorded the lectures in his notes, and returned to bookbinding with the seemingly unrealizable hope of entering the temple of science.
He sent a bound copy of his notes to Davy along with a letter asking for employment, but there was no opening. Davy did not forget, however, and, when one of his laboratory assistants was dismissed for brawling, he offered Faraday a job. When Faraday joined Davy in , Davy was in the process of revolutionizing the chemistry of the day. Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier , the Frenchman generally credited with founding modern chemistry, had effected his rearrangement of chemical knowledge in the s and s by insisting upon a few simple principles.
Among these was that oxygen was a unique element , in that it was the only supporter of combustion and was also the element that lay at the basis of all acids. Davy, after having discovered sodium and potassium by using a powerful current from a galvanic battery to decompose oxides of these elements, turned to the decomposition of muriatic hydrochloric acid , one of the strongest acids known.
The products of the decomposition were hydrogen and a green gas that supported combustion and that, when combined with water , produced an acid. Davy concluded that this gas was an element, to which he gave the name chlorine , and that there was no oxygen whatsoever in muriatic acid.
Acidity, therefore, was not the result of the presence of an acid-forming element but of some other condition. What else could that condition be but the physical form of the acid molecule itself?
Davy suggested, then, that chemical properties were determined not by specific elements alone but also by the ways in which these elements were arranged in molecules. This theory, proposed in the 18th century by Ruggero Giuseppe Boscovich , argued that atoms were mathematical points surrounded by alternating fields of attractive and repulsive forces. A true element comprised a single such point, and chemical elements were composed of a number of such points, about which the resultant force fields could be quite complicated.
Molecules, in turn, were built up of these elements, and the chemical qualities of both elements and compounds were the results of the final patterns of force surrounding clumps of point atoms. By then he had learned chemistry as thoroughly as anyone alive. He had also had ample opportunity to practice chemical analyses and laboratory techniques to the point of complete mastery, and he had developed his theoretical views to the point that they could guide him in his researches.
There followed a series of discoveries that astonished the scientific world. Faraday achieved his early renown as a chemist. His reputation as an analytical chemist led to his being called as an expert witness in legal trials and to the building up of a clientele whose fees helped to support the Royal Institution. In he produced the first known compounds of carbon and chlorine , C 2 Cl 6 and C 2 Cl 4.
In , as a result of research on illuminating gases, Faraday isolated and described benzene. In the s he also conducted investigations of steel alloys , helping to lay the foundations for scientific metallurgy and metallography. While completing an assignment from the Royal Society of London to improve the quality of optical glass for telescopes , he produced a glass of very high refractive index that was to lead him in to the discovery of diamagnetism.
In he married Sarah Barnard, settled permanently at the Royal Institution, and began the series of researches on electricity and magnetism that were to revolutionize physics.
No such circular force had ever before been observed, and Faraday was the first to understand what it implied. If a magnetic pole could be isolated, it ought to move constantly in a circle around a current-carrying wire.
This device, which transformed electrical energy into mechanical energy , was the first electric motor. This discovery led Faraday to contemplate the nature of electricity.
Unlike his contemporaries, he was not convinced that electricity was a material fluid that flowed through wires like water through a pipe. Instead, he thought of it as a vibration or force that was somehow transmitted as the result of tensions created in the conductor.
One of his first experiments after his discovery of electromagnetic rotation was to pass a ray of polarized light through a solution in which electrochemical decomposition was taking place in order to detect the intermolecular strains that he thought must be produced by the passage of an electric current. During the s he kept coming back to this idea, but always without result. In the spring of , Faraday began to work with Charles later Sir Charles Wheatstone on the theory of sound , another vibrational phenomenon.
He was particularly fascinated by the patterns known as Chladni figures formed in light powder spread on iron plates when these plates were thrown into vibration by a violin bow. Here was demonstrated the ability of a dynamic cause to create a static effect, something he was convinced happened in a current-carrying wire.
He was even more impressed by the fact that such patterns could be induced in one plate by bowing another nearby. Such acoustic induction is apparently what lay behind his most famous experiment. On August 29, , Faraday wound a thick iron ring on one side with insulated wire that was connected to a battery.
He then wound the opposite side with wire connected to a galvanometer. He closed the primary circuit and, to his delight and satisfaction, saw the galvanometer needle jump.
A current had been induced in the secondary coil by one in the primary. When he opened the circuit, however, he was astonished to see the galvanometer jump in the opposite direction. Somehow, turning off the current also created an induced current, equal and opposite to the original current, in the secondary circuit.
A current thus appeared to be the setting up of such a state of tension or the collapse of such a state. Although he could not find experimental evidence for the electrotonic state, he never entirely abandoned the concept, and it shaped most of his later work.
In the fall of , Faraday attempted to determine just how an induced current was produced. His original experiment had involved a powerful electromagnet created by the winding of the primary coil.
He now tried to create a current by using a permanent magnet. He discovered that when a permanent magnet was moved in and out of a coil of wire, a current was induced in the coil. Magnets, he knew, were surrounded by forces that could be made visible by the simple expedient of sprinkling iron filings on a card held over them.
The outside of the disk would cut more lines than would the inside, and there would thus be a continuous current produced in the circuit linking the rim to the centre. This was the first dynamo. It was also the direct ancestor of electric motors , for it was only necessary to reverse the situation, to feed an electric current to the disk, to make it rotate.
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Intellectual property rights: An overview and implications in pharmaceutical industry
Editor's note: The following is a text-only version. The complete version with artwork is available for purchase here PDF. The periodic table of the elements is one of the most powerful icons in science: a single document that consolidates much of our knowledge of chemistry. A version hangs on the wall of nearly every chemical laboratory and lecture hall in the world. Indeed, nothing quite like it exists in the other disciplines of science. The story of the periodic system for classifying the elements can be traced back over years. But despite the dramatic changes that have taken place in science over the past century—namely, the development of the theories of relativity and quantum mechanics—there has been no revolution in the basic nature of the periodic system.
Intellectual property rights IPR have been defined as ideas, inventions, and creative expressions based on which there is a public willingness to bestow the status of property. IPR provide certain exclusive rights to the inventors or creators of that property, in order to enable them to reap commercial benefits from their creative efforts or reputation. There are several types of intellectual property protection like patent, copyright, trademark, etc. Patent is a recognition for an invention, which satisfies the criteria of global novelty, non-obviousness, and industrial application. IPR is prerequisite for better identification, planning, commercialization, rendering, and thereby protection of invention or creativity. Each industry should evolve its own IPR policies, management style, strategies, and so on depending on its area of specialty. Pharmaceutical industry currently has an evolving IPR strategy requiring a better focus and approach in the coming era.
Why is it so hard to build and maintain the capacity to innovate? The reason is not simply a failure to execute but a failure to articulate an innovation strategy that aligns innovation efforts with the overall business strategy. Without such a strategy, companies will have a hard time weighing the trade-offs of various practices—such as crowdsourcing and customer co-creation—and so may end up with a grab bag of approaches.
You Need an Innovation Strategy
Metrics details. There is a demand for new chemical reaction technologies and associated engineering aspects due to on-going transition in energy and chemistry associated to moving out progressively from the use of fossil fuels. Focus is given in this review on two main aspects: i the development of alternative carbon sources and ii the integration of renewable energy in the chemical production. It is shown how addressing properly these aspects requires to develop also a new tools for chemical engineering assessment and b innovative methodologies for the development of the materials, reactors and processes. This review evidences the need to accelerate studies on these directions, being a crucial element to catalyze the transition to a more sustainable use of energy and chemistry. It is remarked, however, the need to go beyond the traditional approaches, with some examples given. In fact, the presence of radical changes in the way of production is underlined, requiring thus novel fundamentals and applied engineering approaches.
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The history of chemistry represents a time span from ancient history to the present. By BC The early theory of atomism can be traced back to ancient Greece and from organic substances (such as plants, blood, and hair) by chemical means. Among Pierre Curie's discoveries were that ferromagnetic substances.
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